Henry was a good administrator, but he had a terrible temper, which would get him into trouble. They were Henry, who died in his youth; Richard (known as The Lionheart) who became Richard I; John (known as Lackland) who became John I (of Robin Hood fame), and Geoffrey, by far the cleverest of the three, who never became anything important. As archbishop, Becket did not feel bound by any laws of England or the King, but became a determined defender of the rights of the Church in the face of the King. Directed by Peter Glenville. In June 1162 Thomas Becket, by training as an accounts clerk to his cousin, a banker, was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. Shortly afterwards the Pope, for ever ready in case he could do Britain some damage, made Becket a saint, which, if he had known it in life, would have made Thomas Becket laugh out loud. Contrast to the area? Anonymous. He had become Archdeacon of Canterbury in 1154, and easily managed to combine being a prince of the Church with the more worldly position as Chancellor. Soon their were proclamations of miracles taking place at his tomb. Henry imprisoned all three at one time or another, as well as locking up his rich wife for years, on the grounds that she was backing his sons against him, especially Richard. In 1145, Thomas went to work for the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop Theobald. He was eminently good at his job, much loved by the people of London, and renowned for his good works. He excommunicated three bishops who took their complaints to the King. Andrew Roberts Henry saw the problem of ‘criminous clerks’ as one where he could assert the King’s customary rights over the church, drawn up as the Constitutions of Clarendon. King Henry was furious and uttered the immortal words: “Who shall rid me of this troublesome priest?”. Public admiration however, soon silenced all opposition. The main source of the friction was over what to do with clergy who committed secular crimes. image caption One image in Canterbury's medieval glass depicts Henry II doing penance at the tomb of St Thomas in 1174 But like everything connected with Becket … Henry II and Thomas Becket. Paul Johnson With the church having great power over the monarchs, Thomas Becket enhanced this power further through help of the Pope of Rome. The shock of such a murder reverberated throughout chistendom. Henry II and Thomas Becket. Accordingly, Henry II appointed his chancellor Thomas Becket as the new archbishop of Canterbury in June 1162 CE. When Henry II became king in 1154, he asked Archbishop Theobald of Bec for advice on choosing his government ministers. Oxford Encyclopaedia of World History It was during Henry’s reign that land-laws were developed in order to meet the needs of a more complex society. . So the banker became a very powerful man indeed, quite what happened next is uncertain, the King’s friend, now turned on him and opposed him in every way, what caused this about face? He shut himself up for three days in his chamber, rolled himself in sackcloth and ashes, and  refused food and comfort and then excluded himself from any social engagement. The offices of the Archbishop were rich and powerful and through his offices as confidant to the Archbishop, Thomas was awarded the archdeaconry of Canterbury. Once considered close and trusted friends, quite what drove Becket on his chosen course of action is uncertain. In the 1100's the most powerful King in Europe, HENRY II, found himself in a lot of trouble!!!! What followed next is surely one of the most humiliating acts ever undertaken by an English monarch. Preview and details Files included (3) pptx, 1 MB. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Everything seemed smooth and happy when Henry suddenly made Becket Archibishop of Canterbury, thus elevating him to the highest post in the English Catholic Church, acting directly for the Pope. He became a strong defender of the church and the rights of the clergymen, a contrary expectance Henry II had of him. In the Middle Ages the power of the Church was stronger than even the most powerful of Kings!! The new King was the lawful son of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou. Becket's job was an important one as it involved the distribution of royal charters, writs and letters. Becket quickly came to be seen as a martyr, people prayed to him, and he was believed to work miracles. Map your history, make new connections and gain insights for family, local or special interest projects. Becket benefited from his family's status first by being sent to Paris for his education and from there to England where he joined the household of Theobold, the then Archbishop of Canterbury. The marriage brought Henry even greater estates than he had before, and his kingdom now stretched from the north of England south to the Pyrenees. When a priest accused of rape was executed by a local baron (de Beaumont), Becket promptly excommunicated him, which made the King very angry indeed as de Beaumont was a crony. Royal Favor: Henry II and Thomas Becket. It is important to relate that history notes Henry’s wife Eleanor of Aquitaine could not stand Becket, and nor could Henry’s mother. Henry II (1154-89) was the son of Queen Maud and Geoffrey of Anjou. He came up with a solution that would achieve the same end, while satisfying the restrictions of … King Henry had considered Thomas a true and trusted friend had lifted him to this high status and therefore in the first instance was hurt and puzzled by Becket’s actions. What co Henry II and Thomas a Becket BY DAVID ROSS, EDITOR Henry II (1154-89) was the son of Queen Maud and Geoffrey of Anjou. https://www.biographyonline.net/spiritual/thomas-beckett.html Henry II and the murder of Thomas Becket. The Archbishop was meant to be a monk and those monks of Canterbury Cathedral Priory were extremely reluctant to have this financier appointed to this highest office but the King was insistent and they reluctantly acquiesced. Read more. With Richard Burton, Peter O'Toole, John Gielgud, Gino Cervi. Henry had thought that putting his friend in charge of the church in England would mean the two would be able to work together. There are two excellently written, acted and directed movies which deal with the adult life of Henry II. Certainly Becket wanted to prove to those churchmen who had opposed his consecration that he was capable of being the best Archbishop of Canterbury there had ever been but was it necessary that in order to achieve that he had to oppose the King? The relationship between Henry II and Thomas Becket had been rocky ever since Becket became archbishop of Canterbury. His career was marked by a long quarrel with Henry that ended with Becket’s murder in Canterbury Cathedral. Before long Becket clashed with Henry in the councils at Westminster, Clarendon and Northampton, especially over Henry’s claim to try in the lay courts clergymen who had already been convicted in an ecclesiastical court. © 2019 Intriguing History. Each of these roused rebellions against his father in the period between 1171 and 74. Henry II and Thomas Becket Monika H rma Henry II Was born on 4 March 1133, died in 1189. Henry II and St Thomas Becket: Canterbury City’s first charter...more. Thomas Becket, Henry II and Dover Castle. Re-installed at Canterbury as archbishop, Becket immediately suspended the judgments made at Clarendon and Northampton, judgments especially planned and recommended by Henry. Theobald recommended him to King Henry II, who made him Chancellor (1155). “Who will rid me of this troublesome priest?”. Contrast to the area? The latter was a great soldier and fine strategist who married Berengaria of Spain, though as he was an active homosexual there were no fruits of the marriage. King Henry thought Thomas to be his loyal friend and wanted him in an influential position inside the church. (Christine Caccipuoti) Being King of England isn't an easy task, but Henry II was aided by his good friend Thomas Becket serving as Chancellor. He took as his emblem the "sprig of broom" of the House of Anjou, which in the French of the day became "plant a genet", or Plantagenet. His quarrels with the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, and with various family members (including his son, Richard the Lionheart) ultimately brought about his defeat. Reconnect on plugin Settings page. Becket became a successful and trusted friend and adviser. A murder that shook the Middle Ages by Linda Patrick, Church Support Officer A London merchant's son, Thomas Becket would grow to become one of the most devout Archbishops of the 12th century. 1 decade ago. FREE (0) DawnTurner PHOTOGRAPHY. His claim to sainthood was established  and three years later Thomas was canonized by Alexander III. Two years later on July 12, 1174, an incredible event occurred, the king, depressed by disasters and the rebellion of his wife and his sons, made a pilgrimage to the tomb of Becket but it was not just any pilgrimage. Henry II was not to be so easily thwarted, however, and indeed did not object to Thomas Becket’s ruling against the marriage of William FitzEmpress and Isabel de Warenne. Henry was not Stephen’s son, but took the throne because Stephen had recognised Henry as his heir in the Treaty of Winchester (1153). These territories were enhanced by the homage of King Malcolm III of Scotland in 1157, and his recognition by the barons of Ireland as their overlord in 1171. Kings were careful of the power of the Catholic church in Rome BUT they were also jealous of it as it challenged their own power. Roger was consecrated Archbishop of York on 10 October 1154. Henry VIII vs. Thomas Becket Did you know, on 16 November 1538, mindful of the clash between Church (Archbishop Thomas Becket) and State (King Henry II) in the twelfth century, King Henry VIII decreed that Thomas Becket’s name should be ‘erased and put out of all books’, not ‘called a saint but Bishop Becket, sometime archbishop of Canterbury’. Henry’s Plantagenet blood got the better of him, and in a moment of rage aided by the bottle, he said something in a low voice which was misinterpreted (or so they later claimed) by four of his soldier barons. As Head of the Catholic Church in England he caused Henry endless trouble. His tomb at Canterbury became the most … All Rights Reserved. Henry II, in a public act of penance for his involvement in the murder, visited the tomb in 1174, granting royal approval to Becket’s cult. 4 Answers. Henry II of England, Louis VII of France and Thomas Becket met at Montmirail to hold peace talks. Eleanor had been abandoned by a French King, Louis VI, for reasons that are too complicated to go into. King Henry II of England comes to terms with his affection for his close friend and confidant Thomas Becket, who finds his true honor by observing God's divine will rather than the King's. New Penguin Dictionary of Modern History His death was his triumph. Henry II of England, Louis VII of France and Thomas Becket met at Montmirail to hold peace talks. He was made a saint in 1173, and his grave at Canterbury became a popular shrine, much visited as part of a pilgrimage. ‘Dean Swift’ is a pen name: the author has been a soldier; he has worked in sales, TV, the making of films, as a teacher of English and history and a journalist. Loading... Save for later. Gold vs. Bitcoin from a historical perspective, Writing an Excellent Essay for History Homework, We are in a cold civil war… – Behind Enemy Lines, Knights Hospitaller & Knights Templar: the difference, As Johnson threatens UK's neighbours with gunboats, we revisit the lies underpinning the entire Brexit project - 1Gov.uK - The People's Government Website, Business Card Research Links: – The Exhibition Coalition. The King died, exhausted by his work, his rebellious sons and his clever scheming wife, in 1189, aged only fifty-six. It was one of the most famous events of the 12th century. At first opinion was deeply split on his death, he was seen as someone who wished kingship for himself but not just king, he wished to be head of the church as well. One of the major problems of Henry II’s reign was the murder of Thomas Becket, a murder for which many would hold Henry responsible. On 29 December 1170, 850 years ago, Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral by four knights from Henry II’s household. Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk He wanted the clergy who were convicted of serious crimes to be tried in ordinary courts of law rather than ecclesiastical. Early life and career Thomas was born to Norman parents of the merchant class. Thomas repeatedly clashed with his sovereign over the relationship between the Crown and Church, particularly the exclusive right of courts of the Church to try clerics. Often together, people said the two men ‘had but one heart and one mind’. John Sutherland Favorite Answer. In 1145, Thomas went to work for the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop Theobald. Answer Save. Becket's administrative skills, his charm, intelligence and diplomacy propelled him forward. Initially a close friend of King Henry II, the two men became engaged in a bitter dispute that culminated in Becket’s shocking murder by knights with close ties to the king. They considered him a middle-class upstart, and disliked his open friendship with the King. With the church having great power over the monarchs, Thomas Becket enhanced this power further through help of the Pope of Rome. After the canonisation of Thomas, Henry II had himself soundly scourged by willing monks in repentance for having suggested Becket’s death, and quietly told the murderers to exile themselves in France quickly, on pain of death. When, in 1162, Henry II bluntly ordered him to combine the roles of chancellor and archbishop, Becket answered incredulously: ‘How religious, how saintly is the man you would appoint to that holy see?’ He guessed the plan could tax his loyalty, but the king remained insistent. Close friends turned bitter opponents, they became locked in a feud that culminated in Becket's gruesome murder shortly after Christmas in the year 1170. Adam Nicholson docx, 13 KB. I am watching this movie Becket on Turner Classic and it sure as heck seems like it. Henry became Count of Anjou and Maine upon the death of his father, Count Geoffrey V, in 1151. Close friends turned bitter opponents, they became locked in a feud that culminated in Becket’s gruesome murder shortly after Christmas in the year 1170. Adam and Eve Panel East@Meon Font Test teas elatio, Adam and Eve Panel East@Meon Font Test teas elations with thanks to @helen.banham, Hampshire Stained Glass Window and some tests for@, Hampshire Stained Glass Window and some tests for@our HH project @helen.banham @hampshirehistory, Rochdale an interesting chapel from the train? Dorothy Parker: some things worth remembering . Henry-II-and-Thomas-Becket . He wept before the crypt and spoke of his remorse at uttering those fateful words. His fear of excommunication was very great, he sought out Becket’s murderers and begged forgiveness and reconciliation with the Pope. The murder of St Thomas Becket in his cathedral on 29 December 1170, and the cult of Becket which developed, shaped Canterbury Cathedral and its city for the centuries to come. Adam and Eve Panel East@Meon Font Test teas elations with thanks to @helen.banham ... Hampshire Stained Glass Window and some tests for@our HH project @helen.banham @hampshirehistory ... Rochdale an interesting chapel from the train? Thomas Becket was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162 by Henry II. He pledged himself to abrogate the Statutes of Clarendon, to restore the church of Canterbury to all its rights and possessions and to undertake, if the pope should require it, a three years’ crusade to Jerusalem or Spain, and to support two hundred knights in the Holy Land with these promises supported by those of his son, Henry was reconciled. Thomas a Becket: [returning the Lord Chancellor's ring] Forgive me.. King Henry II: You give the lions of England back to me like a little boy who doesn't want to play anymore.I would have gone to war with all England's might behind me, and even against England's interests, to defend you, Thomas. Where Henry II and Thomas Becket gay lovers? He confirmed the Laws of Scutage in 1157; Scutage represented English military obligations, including a kind of medieval obligatory ‘call-up’. Henry II built a chapel dedicated to Beckett at Dover Castle and continued to regret and seek to do penance for the death and murder of his friend and confidant. They are Becket (1964) with Peter O’Toole as Henry and Richard Burton as Becket, and The Lion in Winter (1968) with O’Toole as an ageing Henry, Katharine Hepburn magnificent as Eleanor, and Anthony Hopkins and Timothy Dalton in small parts. 177 While kneeling at the grave and awaiting a flogging punishment from the church for participating in the events that led to Becket’s murder, Henry remembers better times when the two were friends. Whatever Thomas Becket had achieved in his life to oppose the authority of the monarch, was of no match compared to what he achieved with his death. On the suggestion of Theobald, Henry appointed Thomas Becket as his chancellor. St. Thomas, then Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered by several knights loyal to King Henry II on Dec. 29, 1170. He took as his emblem the "sprig of broom" of the House of Anjou, which in the French of the day became "plant a genet", or Plantagenet. On the suggestion of Theobald, Henry appointed Thomas Becket as his chancellor. Four knights keen to find favour with the King travelled to Canterbury where, on 29th December 1170, they murdered Thomas Becket in the great cathedral of Canterbury. One should note that a chancellor of England in the twelfth century was equivalent in power and prestige to the Prime Minister of today. No-one was surprised by Henry’s choice as both he and Thomas were very good friends. Henry had thought that putting his friend in charge of the church in England would mean the two would be able to work together. After his death Pope Alexander III forgave Henry for the murder of Thomas Becket, an act which would have him, also, laugh out loud. This small vessel, which is decorated with an open-work image of Becket flanked by two of his sword-bearing murderers, would have been filled with some of the saints’ miracle-working, watered-down blood. When Henry II became king in 1154, he asked Archbishop Theobald of Bec for advice on choosing his government ministers. He was great friends with Henry, later to become King Henry II of England. How Thomas Becket’s feud with Henry II led to murder Save 50% on a BBC History Magazine or BBC History Revealed subscription Henry II and Becket may have wrestled over the power of the church, but their murderous dispute was chiefly fuelled by a clash of personalities, according to historian Richard Barber Certainly Henry was bewildered by his actions, his campaign for the canonization of Anselm, a monk archbishop, who had been determined to defy Kings, was a quite outrageous action and Becket continued to seek out points of principle and actions that would fly in the face of the Kings wishes. FREE (2) Popular paid resources. Only a few year later, after the death of Theobald, Henry II asked Becket to take his place. You refer to Becket as a Saxon. The torturous years-long quarrel between Henry II and Thomas Becket concerning the rights of Crown and Church in Medieval England is the stuff of legend. Thomas Becket and Henry II The death of Thomas Becket is a well known event because of its unforeseen results. Henry II gained his throne thanks to the efforts of his mother, who fought to maintain her family's stature in the royal family tree.