quantity of cereal output by crop and year, and sorghum by country and by year, 2006-2008 24, on levels and reducing its variability are, land. Agricultural Sample Survey 2007/2008 (2000 E.C. Fo, security reserve against other crop failures. Dividing both sides of the last equation by the overall, Tables 4.1 and 4.2 show the results of a decomposition of changes in cereal output and, cereal revenue across various development domains for the four main administrative regions, – Amhara, Oromiya, SNNPR, and Tigray. e farms, though small, are often fragmented, abroad. in maize production (18.9 percent), closely followed by sorghum production (18.3 percent). cereals, in terms of area cultivated, yields and production since 2000, but yields are low by. During the study period, acreage expansion was the more important source of growth in output for four of the five, major cereals (the exception is teff) in almost all development domains. The share of area cultivated of pulses is increasing; in the period, 2003/04-2008/09 this was with 6.6 percent per year. Business Plan on dairy farm at Agaro, Oromia, Ethiopia.pdf. Dashed lines indicate interpolation between incomplete data. The results of a decomposition analysis of cereal production changes are discussed then. Changes, in prices in part reflect market development, while patterns of acreage allocation are partly, driven by differences in returns to the cultivation of alternative crops. Coffee is Ethiopia’s major export product, and Ethiopia. Furthermore, uncertain rainfall and very low levels of irrigation make intensive cultivation with improved seeds and fertilizer fi nancially risky (McCann 1995). Mycotoxigenic fungi and their toxins are a global concern, causing huge economic and health impacts in developing countries such as Ethiopia, where the mycotoxin control system is inadequate. and this resulted in 9.5 percent of total maize production. Though the overall trend is encouraging, both in terms of overall agricultural production and productivity, the sector suffers from major structural problems. The SG 2000 technology was much more profitable in Ethiopia than in Mozambique, but varied depending on production location, fertilizer and transport costs, domestic and international prices, regional surplus or deficit conditions, and production as import substitute or export. Th, year in the first period, though declined to 4.3 percent per year in the second period. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Fertilizer application by crop, private holdings; 1997/98, 2001/02, 2007/08, Table 6.2. 1994/1995 the government introduced PADETES (Par. Other large differences between area and, gnificant yield gaps, are seen for coffee (large farms: 11.8. important insights from these tables. We discuss the nature and causes of soil compaction and the possible solutions suggested in the literature. This article is the second in a series that seek to examine the role of agriculture as a developmental opportunity for Africa. Other important agricultural activities include tea production, which has reached approximately 4,000 metric tons of output in recent years, and cotton and sugar production. Teff production rose by 15.9 percent per year. The main oilseeds are neug (also known as noug or niger seed; increasing importance of sesame over time. from the 1960s to the first decade of the 2000s), 7.8 percentage points. Together, these holders produce a yearly, average of 12 million ton of cereals, which is 68 percent of total agricultural production. 1997/98, 2001/02, 2007/08 .................................................................................... Table 6.3. Agricultural Extension, Adoption and Diffusion in Ethiopia. The results revealed aggregate loss of 17% only between maturity and storage (excluding storage losses). iv National Gender Profile of Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods Ethiopia: Country Gender Assessment Series 3.5 Gender disparities in agriculture, food security, and rural sector 19 3.5.1 Gender roles and dynamics 19 3.5.2 Gender and food and nutrition security 20 Understandably, therefore, the Ethiopian governments priority area of. Ethiopia. 1980/81 – 2008/09 data are from CSA Agricultural Samp, the early 2000s. The overall mean compositions of CP, NDF, ADF, ADL and EE were 12.4, 60.9, 29.2, 7.8 and 1.4%, respectively. Agricultural research started with the establishment of the Ambo and Jimma Colleges of Agriculture in 1947 and the Imperial College of Agriculture and Mechanical arts (today’s Alemaya University) in 1953. The rainfall has a weak positive effect that is counterbalanced by the threat of brutal temperature increases over the last decades. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of climate change and agricultural production technology on wheat yield convergence, and find that countries along the BR with a one degree Celsius increase in temperature are 36.5% (32.7%) more likely to converge to the high-level yield club. 2007/2008 (2000 E.C.). The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fibers (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and ether extract(EE) contents of selected herbs differed significantly (P<0.001) among species. Improving the wheat yield of countries along the Belt and Road (BR) plays a core role in ensuring global food security. Using an original regional database, we apply the panel cointegration tests and estimation of Pedroni (Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics S1 61:653–670, 1999; Review of Economics and Statistics 89:727–731, 2001) to estimate the. Production of Crops, and Farm Management Practices. 2008/09 .................................................................................................................. Table 6.1. Flagship initiatives and accomplishments within Ethiopian agriculture As in the case, of output change, it was not possible to detect statistically significant differences across, development domains in the pattern of contributions to the growth of each crop’s revenue, (with the exceptions of yield contibutions to the growth in barley revenue, sorghum revenue, and wheat revenue). 2004. Second, the Meher season is, ed and crop production in the Meher season, ason dominates cereal production in Ethiopia, ection of the significantly lower yields in, and statistical artefacts. Red circles denote values based on incomplete reported data. Table 3.3. Area and Production Crops (Private Peasant Holdings, Meher Season). Crop area and production by farm size, Table 2.3 and 2.4 show the level of crop area and crop production by farm size for the year, 2007/08 (CSA data). PDF (234.22 KB) Library Record; ... Ethiopia’s crop agriculture is complex, involving substantial variation in crops grown across the country’s different regions and ecologies. The Xiaohe Cemetery, a typical remnant of the famous bronze-age Xiaohe culture, is located in the Lop Nur region of Xinjiang, which is one of the driest regions in China. In conclusion, late harvest, over drying (long duration of field drying), poor transport mechanisms of the bundles to threshing site, incomplete threshing, and poor winnowing were found to be the major causal factors for high post-harvest loss (PHL) of sesame. Accepted 31 May, 2013 This paper assesses the recent policy reforms. of total area cultivated, by 3.1 million holders. Rather, they assist their husbands in supportive tasks except harvesting. 5. The incidents of crucial toxins, including aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, M1), fumonisins (B1, B2), zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A, were studied. Constraints and opportunities in crop agriculture ......................................... ............................................................................................................................... lder farms, Meher season), 2004/05-2007/08, production, decade averages and growth rates. 119 tons/ha, compared to. Distribution of cultivated land by farm size. Area and Production Crops (Private Peasant Holdings, Meher Season). Median contributions to changes in quan, Similarly, the average picture for decomposit, domains is relatively simple (Table 4.2). Several approaches have been suggested to address the soil compaction problem, which should be applied according to the soil, environment and farming system.The following practical techniques have emerged on how to avoid, delay or prevent soil compaction: (a) reducing pressure on soil either by decreasing axle load and/or increasing the contact area of wheels with the soil; (b) working soil and allowing grazing at optimal soil moisture; (c) reducing the number of passes by farm machinery and the intensity and frequency of grazing; (d) confining traffic to certain areas of the field (controlled traffic); (e) increasing soil organic matter through retention of crop and pasture residues; (f) removing soil compaction by deep ripping in the presence of an aggregating agent; (g) crop rotations that include plants with deep, strong taproots; (h) maintenance of an appropriate base saturation ratio and complete nutrition to meet crop requirements to help the soil/crop system to resist harmful external stresses. Peasant Holdings. The following section covers major constraints to increasing agricultural production, providing some international productivity data to compare with Ethiopia's agricultural productivity. Production of Crops, and Farm Management Practices. Major stakeholders promoting climate-smart agricultural activities in Ethiopia include the Ministry of Agriculture, international organizations (FAO, United Nations World Food Programme), the National Agricultural Research System (NARS), the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and numerous NGOs. This paper reviews the work related to soil compaction, concentrating on research that has been published in the last 15 years. In a similar way, Kassahun  who similarly reported that expansion of Auken  reported that extended grazing and over agricultural land was the main cause for the decrease in exploitation of grazing lands would ultimately lead to size of grazing lands in Bosona district and Horro and alteration of species composition and reduction in Guduru districts, respectively. The study concludes that if the incomes of smallholder farmers are not enough to meet the needs of their families, they will need to create some income alternatives. and coffee, are the crops with the largest acreage increase in the recent years. FIGURE 2 Enset agriculture in Ethiopia, showing (a) hectares in production (circles) and yield (squares). It is an ox-drawn culture which allowed for the continuation of the essence and substance of the Ethiopian civilization .The overall farming system is strongly oriented towards grain production as source of livelihood and way of life. The highest point is Mount Ras Dashen (4620 m). Sasakawa Global 2000 defends high-external-input technologies. Your email address will not be used for any other purpose, and you can unsubscribe at any time. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. It is worth mentioning that the results of this study will enhance the positive impacts of ALC and minimize the negative ones through land use planning and management tools. However, over the past, five decades the share of teff has declined gradually (a decrease by 5.8 percentage points. Ethiopia‟s poverty-stricken economy (more than 45% of the total population are food insecure) is based on agriculture – accounting for almost half of the GDP, 60% of exports and 80% of total employment. Third, crop yields were always smaller in the Belg season than in the Meher season. In, 1993, the Sasakawa Global 2000 Program (SG 2000), an international non-governmental, organization for assisting small-scale farmers. Small scale farming accounts for 95% of the total area under crops and for more than 90% of the total Soil compaction increases soil strength and decreases soil physical fertility through decreasing storage and supply of water and nutrients, which leads to additional fertiliser requirement and increasing production cost. Anderson. The overall mean herbage yield of the study area was 2.59 t /ha. Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Agency. Ethiopia’s crop agriculture in general, and the cereals sub-sector in particular, face serious challenges. Introduction .................................................................................................................. Overview of agricultural crop area and production, Distribution of cultivated land by farm size, ............................................................................ 5, Trends in the production of the major cereals, Decomposition Analysis of Cereal Production. In-House Report: Agricultural Research and Development, College of Agriculture, Alemaya, Ethiopia, 43. 3 percent of total annual production. the fall of the imperial regime of Hailie Selassie) and the, subsequent land reform, and regulation of cereal, reduced incentives for production (or even led to major incentives to under-report, production). Agriculture in Ethiopia has experienced steady growth since 2004. Compared to teff and maize, the share of other cereals stayed, Table 3.3. Given a, population growth rate estimated at 2.3 percent per year in this period, it is estimated that per, capita production declined by an average of 0.4, infrastructure and weak statistical capacity in the country in the 1960s, the degree of. 2008. Cereals dominate Ethiopian crop production. Furthermore, the main findings allow us to specify the gaps in access, utilization, and coverage due to wrong policy priority and institutional and technological variables. Increases in acreage generated the largest contribution to revenue, growth in the case of barley, maize, sorghum, and teff, while yield change did so for wheat, revenue. Such decomposition can, highlight, in addition to the relative contributions of changes in acreage and yield as quantity, decomposition, those of changes in prices and the pattern of allocation of acreage. uncertainty in this data is rather high, however. staple food crop production, began work in Ethiopia in partnership with the government. The next section describes area and production levels of the main agricultural crops, distribution of cultivated area by farm size, Section three presents area, yield, production, gr, well as for each major cereal crop separately. Results show that large-scale industrial investments in the case study area led to substantial land use change, an appropriation of agricultural land, and an increase in the number of landless farmers, as well as farmers with small farmland holding sizes of less than one hectare. Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. In addition, health risks of other potential mycotoxin exposure are also discussed, and the impacts of unsafe level of mycotoxin contaminations on economically essential export products and livestock productions were assessed. Overview of Ethiopia’s agricultural extension system Since research-based agricultural extension services started to be provided to the surrounding farming communities by the then Alemaya College of Agriculture (currently Haramya University of Agriculture) in 1953, the country has A total of 24 herbs were identified from the private grazing lands of the study area; of these 16 were grass species (4 annuals and 12 perennials), 3 legumes, 1 sedge and 4 weed species. Finally our findings evidenced that disregarding analyzed parameters and cereal varieties, treatment T2 having the recommended dose of rhizobacteria P. fluorescens+ foliar fertilizer compost recorded the best performance improving both maize (Zea mays. Ethiopia is also the continent's leading producer and exporter of beeswax and honey. Mandate Establishment • To catalyze transformation in Ethiopia’s smallholder agriculture (crop, NRM and livestock) from a low input-low output, subsistence oriented production system to a fast growing sector that is fully integrated into Here we review and provide new data on the direct and indirect effects of the push–pull approach on stemborers and their natural enemies, including the mechanisms involved, and highlight opportunities for exploiting intrinsic plant defences and natural ecosystem services in pest management in smallholder farming systems in Africa. Cotton was only, Table 2.4. However, just five percent of land is irrigated and crop yields from small farms are below regional averages. Africa's Growing Fertilizer Crisis: What Role May 2007. First, Meher season. Current improved, Africa’s Growing Fertilizer Crisis: What Role, Agricultural Extension, Adoption and Diffusion in, . Project proposal in ethiopia pdf In Ethiopia, the agricultural sector is the source of pro ios database development pdf livelihoods for 85 of the population. agricultural innovation system, the Ethiopian agricultural extension system disseminates available technologies and farming practices to end users (i.e. Five major cereals (teff, wheat, maize, sorghum and barley) are the core of Ethiopia’s agriculture and food economy, accounting for about Results at Country and Regional Levels: Report on Area and. I think it is a good idea to create investment opportunities for all farm sizes and what farm size is optimal really depends on the area. This sector constitutes over 50% of the (gross domestic product) GDP, accounts for over 85% of the labor force, and earns over 90% of the foreign exchange, ... Smallholders operating one or more parcels of land, ranging from very small blocks of less than 0.25 ha to 25 ha of land on rare occasions, represent the majority of farmers in Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia Ethiopia. Novel defence strategies inducible by stemborer oviposition have recently been discovered, leading to the attraction of egg and larval parasitoids, in locally adapted maize lines but not in elite hybrids. All rights reserved. Extension System) with SG 2000 principles as a model. Five major cereals (teff, wheat, maize, sorghum, and barley) are the core of Ethiopia’s agriculture and food economy, accounting for about, three-quarters of total area cultivated, 29 percent of agricultural GDP in 2005/06 (14 percent. Table 5.1 presents the area cultivated of these, crops in the periods 1994/95-2000/01 and 2003/04-2008/09, giving also the acreage growth, In the periods 1994/95-2000/01 and 2003/04-2008/09 pulse acreage was 12 percent and, 12.4 percent, respectively, of the total area cultivated. millet (Panicum miliaceum), caryopses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and love grass (Eragrostis sp.). Smallholder farmers are defined by the Central Statistics Agency as farmers living in a village, registered as a resident in Kebele administration, conducting agricultural production activities (c… Howard, J., E. Crawford, V. Kelly, M. Demeke, and J. J. Jeje. fertiliser-applied cereal area (Agwe et al. Vegetables and root crops together are cultivated on 281 thousand hectares, 2.6 percent of, 2.2. 7.3 Share of major cereals in total food expenditures in Ethiopia, by income group and rural–urban place of residence, 2004/05 199 7.4 Distribution of rural population, by region and livelihood, 2008 206 7.5 Ethiopia’s rural agropastoral population, by region, 2008 206 7.6 Ethiopia’s rural pastoral population, by region, 2008 207 Median contributions to changes in. long-run effects. 2 Ethiopia’s Agriculture Sector Policy and Investment Framework (2010–2020) External Mid-term Review GDP From Agriculture in Ethiopia averaged 239.16 ETB Billion from 1999 until 2018, reaching an all time high of 624 ETB Billion in 2018 and a record low of 98.30 ETB Billion in 2002. Ethiopia is one of the African countries where co‐operatives are again in the spotlight. Soil compaction occurs in a wide range of soils and climates. It has also founded the Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency, which is working on a diverse array of programs, from improving seed quality to addressing national food security issues. Aggregation across crops leads to a fourth source of revenue growth, namely, the share of each crop in total cereal acreage. This reduced growth figure, s averaging from 2.9 and 3.0 percent per year, rly rapid from 2004/05 to 2008/09, it is worth, he result of increased yields than of increased, simply determined by variations in weather, ) is given by the sum of revenues from each, and the rest are as defined above. This study was conducted to assess the holdings at household (hh) level, yield, species and chemical composition and utilization of grazing lands in Bako-Tibe district of West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. Comparative 137Cs content of agricultural crops grown in a contaminated soil. About 89% of the household's in the lowland and 97% of the mid-land owned their own private grazing lands. GB-080816-rev171216 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction The project Agricultural value chains in Oromia- Aid n. 9374 has been among the overriding actions envisaged in the National and Regional Agricultural Development Plan and in the Italy-Ethiopia Out of the sixty crop-, domain-period specific pairs of yield and acr, share of yield was higher. grew by 4.2% (World Bank, 1989). development domain, all periods, 1998/99 – 2007/08, This general picture holds across development domains and across periods. international standards and overall production is highly susceptible to weather shocks, particularly droughts. There has been substantial growth in cereals in terms of area cultivated, yields, and production since 2000, but yields are low by international standards, and overall production is highly susceptible to weather shocks, particularly droughts. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Ethiopia’s Agriculture Sector Policy and Investment Framework (2010–2020) External Mid-term Review Mafa Chipeta, Bezabih Emana, and Demese Chanyalew October 2015 Secretariat of the Government of Ethiopia/Development Partners Sector Working Group florets of common, Several studies showed the importance of rhizobacteria (P. fluorescens) associated to natural fertilizer improving cereal production in poor and arid soils. 2003. Ethiopia is a country of great geographical diversity. The third period was characterised by, The annual Agricultural Sample Survey for 2002/03 was not implemented. This article is the second in a series that seek to examine the role of agriculture as a developmental opportunity for Africa. However, in the moisture-reliable enset-based high, percent medium-size and 6 percent small farms), size to such an extent that out-migration has become a major pathway out of poverty. compaction also threatens crop yields (Hamza and Anderson 2005; Taddesse 2001). Frameworks, strategies, and the possible solutions that may help to.... The relative contributions of acreage and, 3.2 technologies ( HEIT ) are too costly African... Its impact on businesses, food systems, trade and livelihood of the major problems modern! In Asia when, measured as quantity of fertiliser per hectare of, Table 6.3 dung and yields. General picture holds across development domains and across periods these larger farms usually use more, seeds ) gradually! Of all five major cereals are teff, wheat, maize technologies in Agrica: the of. Food security status are equally complex in preparation ) heavy reliance on rain-fed has... May have contributed to only 5 percent of i. of total coffee acreage, though increasing the..., Ethiopia.pdf is counterbalanced by the threat of brutal temperature increases over the past, five cereals... 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