[10] The following year he secured a job as pianist in the household of Nadezhda von Meck, the patroness of Tchaikovsky. [109] Langham Smith writes that the term became transferred to the compositions of Debussy and others which were "concerned with the representation of landscape or natural phenomena, particularly the water and light imagery dear to Impressionists, through subtle textures suffused with instrumental colour". Debussy: Piano Music DEBUSSY. The funeral procession made its way through deserted streets to a temporary grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery as the German guns bombarded the city. $18.99. As well as Maeterlinck for Pelléas et Mélisande, he drew on Shakespeare and Dickens for two of his Préludes for piano – La Danse de Puck (Book 1, 1910) and Hommage à S. Pickwick Esq. [155] Later generations of French composers had a much more positive relationship with his music. Taruskin writes that some have seen this as a reference to the composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schoenberg, both born Jewish. These failures made him ineligible to continue in the Conservatoire's piano classes, but he remained a student for harmony, solfège and, later, composition. [90] His works were catalogued and indexed by the musicologist François Lesure in 1977 (revised in 2003)[91] and their Lesure number ("L" followed by a number) is sometimes used as a suffix to their title in concert programmes and recordings. [42][n 7], Marie Vasnier ended her liaison with Debussy soon after his final return from Rome, although they remained on good enough terms for him to dedicate to her one more song, "Mandoline", in 1890. [108] Two late stage works, the ballets Khamma (1912) and La boîte à joujoux (1913), were left with the orchestration incomplete, and were completed by Charles Koechlin and Caplet, respectively. [87] They include the String Quartet (1893), Pelléas et Mélisande (1893–1902), the Nocturnes for Orchestra (1899) and La mer (1903–1905). Although considering Images "the pinnacle of Debussy's achievement as a composer for orchestra", Trezise notes a contrary view that the accolade belongs to the ballet score Jeux. It achieved only a temporary respite, and occasioned him considerable frustration ("There are mornings when the effort of dressing seems like one of the twelve labours of Hercules"). [34] Although Debussy's works showed the influence of Jules Massenet, the latter concluded, "He is an enigma. Debussy's orchestral works include Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (1894), Nocturnes (1897–1899) and Images (1905–1912). Debussy was there from January 1885 to March 1887, with three or possibly four absences of several weeks when he returned to France, chiefly to see Marie Vasnier. He remarked to a colleague that if Wagner, Mozart and Beethoven could come to his door and ask him to play, Lesure, p. 4; Fulcher, p. 101; Lockspeiser, p. 235; and Nichols (1998), p. 3, Lockspeiser, p. 6; Jensen, p. 4; and Lesure, p. 85, Lockspeiser, p. 6; and Trezise (2003), p. xiv, Lockspeiser, pp. Biographers of Debussy, including Edward Lockspeiser, Stephen Walsh and Eric Frederick Jensen, comment that although Antoinette Mauté de Fleurville was a woman of some affectations, with the assumed manner of a grande dame, she was a fine teacher. These writers, who included Verlaine, Mallarmé, Maeterlinck and Rimbaud, reacted against the realism, naturalism, objectivity and formal conservatism that prevailed in the 1870s. [164], Contemporaries of Debussy who made recordings of his music, included the pianists Ricardo Viñes (in "Poissons d'or" from Images and "La soirée dans Grenade" from Estampes); Alfred Cortot (numerous solo pieces as well as the Violin Sonata with Jacques Thibaud and the Chansons de Bilitis with Maggie Teyte); and Marguerite Long ("Jardins sous la pluie" and "Arabesques"). [51] His success in London was consolidated in April 1909, when he conducted Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune and the Nocturnes at the Queen's Hall;[81] in May he was present at the first London production of Pelléas et Mélisande, at Covent Garden. His piano works include two books of Préludes and one of Études. [104][106] In this piece, Debussy abandoned the whole-tone scale he had often favoured previously in favour of the octatonic scale with what the Debussy scholar François Lesure describes as its tonal ambiguities. He expressed trenchant views on composers ("I hate sentimentality – his name is Camille Saint-Saëns"), institutions (on the Paris Opéra: "A stranger would take it for a railway station, and, once inside, would mistake it for a Turkish bath"), conductors ("Nikisch is a unique virtuoso, so much so that his virtuosity seems to make him forget the claims of good taste"), musical politics ("The English actually think that a musician can manage an opera house successfully! [52] The membership was fluid, but at various times included Maurice Ravel, Ricardo Viñes, Igor Stravinsky and Manuel de Falla. Nature in all its vastness is truthfully reflected in my sincere though feeble soul. 1: Le martyre de Saint-Sébastien", "Strength in numbers: How Fibonacci taught us how to swing", "The Art of French Piano Music: Debussy, Ravel, Fauré, Chabrier", "Signification, Objectification, and the Mimetic Uncanny in Claude Debussy's 'Golliwog's Cakewalk'", "George Benjamin–Conductor, Composer and Knight", “Written on Skin is one of the operatic masterpieces of our time – review”, "Debussy orchestrations point towards 2018 centenary", " Debussy: The Complete Works review – a comprehensive and invaluable survey", Website of Debussy museum, St. Germain-en-Laye, International Music Score Library Project, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Claude_Debussy&oldid=996639768, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 20:39. Lesure comments that they range from the frolics of minstrels at Eastbourne in 1905 and the American acrobat "General Lavine" "to dead leaves and the sounds and scents of the evening air". He wrote his own poems for the Proses lyriques (1892–1893) but, in the view of the musical scholar Robert Orledge, "his literary talents were not on a par with his musical imagination". His fatal illness prevented him from completing the set, but those for cello and piano (1915), flute, viola and harp (1915), and violin and piano (1917 – his last completed work) are all concise, three-movement pieces, more diatonic in nature than some of his other late works. Much of his music from this period is on a small scale, such as the Two Arabesques, Valse romantique, Suite bergamasque, and the first set of Fêtes galantes. Clair de lune. [46] The engagement was broken off, and several of Debussy's friends and supporters disowned him, including Ernest Chausson, hitherto one of his strongest supporters. Claude Debussy was born in St. Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, France. I t was a description he always rejected, but Claude Debussy (1862-1918) is often thought of as an impressionist, a musical equivalent to Monet or Renoir. [2] After Debussy's short Wagnerian phase, he started to become interested in non-Western music and its unfamiliar approaches to composition. He first joined the piano class of Antoine François Marmontel,[14] and studied solfège with Albert Lavignac and, later, composition with Ernest Guiraud, harmony with Émile Durand, and organ with César Franck. [46] While still living with Dupont, he had an affair with the singer Thérèse Roger, and in 1894 he announced their engagement. [n 8] In the same year the first two of Debussy's three orchestral Nocturnes were first performed. – although he also conceded, "I feel free because I have been through the mill, and I don't write in the fugal style because I know it. You have only to listen. He regarded the classical symphony as obsolete and sought an alternative in his "symphonic sketches", La mer (1903–1905). Some user-contributed text on this page is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. [60], In January 1902 rehearsals began at the Opéra-Comique for the opening of Pelléas et Mélisande. [93] The central "Jeux de vagues" section has the function of a symphonic development section leading into the final "Dialogue du vent et de la mer", "a powerful essay in orchestral colour and sonority" (Orledge) which reworks themes from the first movement. "[33], Debussy finally composed four pieces that were submitted to the Academy: the symphonic ode Zuleima (based on a text by Heinrich Heine); the orchestral piece Printemps; the cantata La Damoiselle élue (1887–1888), the first piece in which the stylistic features of his later music began to emerge; and the Fantaisie for piano and orchestra, which was heavily based on Franck's music and was eventually withdrawn by Debussy. A 2 cd collation of Debussy's orchestral works, this album provides a highly musical entry into his oeuvre - a good point of access for further exploration and purchases. [15] Newman concurred: "There is a good deal of Wagner, especially of Tristan, in the idiom. [123] A further improvisation by Debussy during this conversation included a sequence of whole tone harmonies which may have been inspired by the music of Glinka or Rimsky-Korsakov which was becoming known in Paris at this time. Debussy's most dramatic contribution to music history was his disregard for traditional chord … [166], "Debussy" redirects here. The 1904 and 1913 sets have been transferred to compact disc. Let us know what you think of the Last.fm website. The following year began well, when at Fauré's invitation, Debussy became a member of the governing council of the Conservatoire. [2], Among the late piano works are two books of Préludes (1909–10, 1911–13), short pieces that depict a wide range of subjects. Lockspeiser calls La mer "the greatest example of an orchestral Impressionist work",[114] and more recently in The Cambridge Companion to Debussy Nigel Simeone comments, "It does not seem unduly far-fetched to see a parallel in Monet's seascapes". He was one of the most important figures in music at the turn of the 20th century; his music represents the transition from late-romantic to 20th century classical.Debussy's most dramatic contribution to music history was his disregard for traditional chord structures and tonality. [2][9] The shop was unsuccessful, and closed in 1864; the family moved to Paris, first living with Victorine's mother, in Clichy, and, from 1868, in their own apartment in the Rue Saint-Honoré. Achille-Claude Debussy (22nd August 1862 – 25th March 1918) was a French composer. [51] After a brief visit to London, the couple returned to Paris in September, buying a house in a courtyard development off the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne (now Avenue Foch), Debussy's home for the rest of his life. [40] He also attended two concerts of Rimsky-Korsakov's music, conducted by the composer. [154], In the aftermath of the First World War, the young French composers of Les Six reacted against what they saw as the poetic, mystical quality of Debussy's music in favour of something more hard-edged. [2] Debussy believed that since Beethoven, the traditional symphonic form had become formulaic, repetitive and obsolete. [51] Finding the hostility in Paris intolerable, Debussy and Emma (now pregnant) went to England. The interview was published in, Notes to Warner Classics CD 190295642952 (2018), style of late 19th-century French painting, "An introduction to the solo piano music of Debussy and Ravel", "From L'aprés-midi d'un faune to Pelléas", "Maeterlinck's Mistress Assumed She Was Going to Sing Melisande. [97] Most of the major works for which Debussy is best known were written between the mid-1890s and the mid-1900s. [72], The Bardacs divorced in May 1905. In May 1893 Debussy attended a theatrical event that was of key importance to his later career – the premiere of Maurice Maeterlinck's play Pelléas et Mélisande, which he immediately determined to turn into an opera. P.P.M.P.C. [2][148][149][150] Roger Nichols writes that "if one omits Schoenberg [...] a list of 20th-century composers influenced by Debussy is practically a list of 20th-century composers tout court. Debussy enlisted the help of André Caplet in orchestrating and arranging the score. He was greatly influenced by the Symbolist poetic movement of the later 19th century. [10], With Marmontel's help Debussy secured a summer vacation job in 1879 as resident pianist at the Château de Chenonceau, where he rapidly acquired a taste for luxury that was to remain with him all his life. [23] He travelled with her family for the summers of 1880 to 1882, staying at various places in France, Switzerland and Italy, as well as at her home in Moscow. 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