The hardware limitations! Shakespeare quote Let’s take a look, and do a quick Apollo 11 code review. Original Apollo 11 Guidance Computer (AGC) source code for the command and lunar modules. In my youth, I am now retired, I worked on the apollo program at north american space and information systems in downey calif. chief contractor for the Apollo Command/Service Modules. Burn baby burn Required fields are marked *. Back in the 1960s, MIT’s Instrumentation Laboratory had been tasked with developing software for flying the Apollo 11 spacecraft — and “They came up with a new way to store computer programs, called ‘rope memory,’ and created a special version of the assembly programming language,” according to an article on Quartz. Readability is important. From our smartphones to our cars, software is everywhere. Cristian is a full stack developer at Tecknoworks. The Apollo 11 software that got us to the moon has a few things about it you probably do not know. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Margaret_Hamilton.gif Looking back at this I cannot help but to think how far we have come with software. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Someone lost hope. With help from astronaut Buzz Aldrin aboard the Lunar Module, they identified what was causing the overload indicated by the computer. Posted by 4 years ago. It then sent out an alarm, which meant to the astronaut, I’m overloaded with more tasks than I should be doing at this time and I’m going to keep only the more important tasks; i.e., the ones needed for landing…Actually, the computer was programmed to do more than recognize error conditions. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. You'll not only learn the skills but get a chance to apply them on a real-world project. So, they came up with a new way to store computer programs, called "rope memory," and created a special version of the assembly programming language. Sunday, July 20 marked the anniversary of the 1969 Apollo 11 lunar mission, which most people know today as the moon landing. High-level languages existed when the AGC was designed, but at the time they weren’t nearly efficient enough. As a college professor/advisor, I hope all parents and young people read this and it reminds them that college degrees still afford the opportunity to engage in creative learning. http://www.amazingwomeninhistory.com/ A fellow computer engineer, Frank Garman, located in Mission Control, also recognized the error. Remembering the Apollo 11 Moon Landing With the Woman Who Made It Happen. Later the lab would be renamed the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. Margaret is an Indiana native who completed her mathematics degree with a minor in philosophy from the University of Michigan. I was blown away by the capabilities of the Apollo computer systems. This type of coding is very tedious but takes advantage of the computer’s processing capabilities quite efficiently as you directly manipulate the memory of the hardware. instructions) easily recognized by humans. Although these were seasoned military pilots and astronauts, I can only imagine their surprise when a code popped up they did not prepare for in the training simulator. Hello there. Designer Hugh-Blair Smith created a language called "Basic", a low-level assmelby language of about forty instructions (distince from the hgigh-level BASIC programming language developed at Dartmouth at about the same time). This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. I cannot wait to see! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyhI85Rd1kI, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Margaret_Hamilton.gif, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong, http://www.dwheeler.com/sloccount/sloccount.html, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJEnTE8kcFY. It is a myth! Naming conventions are labels applied to name specific events in your code. As the software ran, another line of code was loaded into memory that displayed the Lunar Module’s range and velocity. Another set gives even more insight to the humor of the software programmers at that time: You can explore more of this by visiting Github. Respect your users, but don’t trust them. The code can be found on GitHub. When I teach database programming, I often refer to ‘flags’. ... Systems Language. When the code was executed it caused a memory overload. However, by today’s standards, there are some calculators and watches that are more powerful and capable of processing multiple instructions simultaneously. 3. Goodbye. Programming was done in assembly language and in an interpretive language, in reverse Polish. A blog post announces that some of the source code for the Apollo 11 spacecraft has been put online.. On this day 40 years ago, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon. Apollo's software derived from the basic design of the Mars mission. They are like notes. instructions) easily recognized by humans. So, I've stumbled upon some source code when I researched what was up there, and I've noticed great comments (eg. Assembly code is converted to the  “machine language” of the computing device (one’s and zeroes) by an assembler utility program that puts it all together. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. The solution was to not run the code on the Lunar Module but instead have Mission Control monitor the range and velocity then report it to the astronauts. I spent time in college learning assembler on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) minicomputer and I can say, I have a fond appreciation for coding at that level but prefer high level programming languages. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. When an event occurs, a flag goes off triggering another activity. Apollo 11 guidance computer source code now on github. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. You can bet they followed good software development practices. The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was installed on board the Apollo 11 Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM). The software was submitted by 1 person and approved by 6 other people. I wonder what will be different in terms of software and devices. The internet is a treasure trove of information. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. July 20, 2019, is the 50 th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing. Humor is essential for landing people on the Moon. Just as shocked had to be the support team on earth felt. A complete set of recovery programs was incorporated into the software. That was a transmission from mission commander Neil Armstrong upon reviewing the output of the DSKY (Disply Keyboard – pronounced Dis-Key) as they entered the moon’s orbit preparing to descend to the lunar surface. The result was that the computer was being asked to perform all of its normal functions for landing while receiving an extra load of spurious data which used up 15% of its time. 2019-03-01 Released: NEON Studio: Of the three Apollo 11 astronauts, Command Module pilot Michael Collins was the only one who did not set foot on the Moon. She would eventually join the team at the “I Lab” which was known officially as the Instrumentation Laboratory at MIT. When Apollo 11‘s Lunar Module landed on the Moon 40 years ago today, the software that helped take humans to another celestial body was essentially built using paper-tape rolls and thick cardstock that was punched with special holes.. “Eagle looking great. The AGC was a machine that at the time, was quite capable of processing the assembly code with a single micro processor. As I began to dig,  I learned a very interesting story behind the software NASA used. The Apollo 11 Moon landing was one of the most memorable moments of 20th-century history, and Margaret Hamilton's code made it possible. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Take 5 minutes and try a FREE coding activity! What language was Margaret Hamilton’s code in for the Apollo 11? As I searched the internet for various digital goodies related to Apollo 11, I was very pleased to find a website that provides you with the onboard simulators for the Apollo Guidance Computers. Do you have an idea for some code we should review? There are 40.202 lines of code. I explain the different types of programming languages in CODING LANGUAGES – The Secret All Programmers Know. The ones in here are priceless! Some kind of assembler? This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Yes, writing computer code does require creativity. Assembler is considered a low-level programming language as there are very few “plain language” type words (eg. When code becomes so lengthy, as in the AGC code, these comments are typically made mandatory and checked by other team members. We look at the pioneering computer technology developed by Nasa. These simulators can give you a great experience of what the controls were like. You would be surprised how many times these become important, especially when you are writing a program for months or years. It was written in a special version of the assembly language. The AGC provided computation and electronic interfaces for guidance, navigation, and control of the spacecraft. Total Physical Source Lines of Code (SLOC) = 40,202 Estimated Average Number of Developers (Effort/Schedule) = 7.62 You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Often times, when I teach students to code, I have to remind them to comment their code as they feel it is not necessary. One of the main purposes of commenting your code is to remind you or another developer as to what that section of code did. After separating from the Command Module in lunar orbit, the LM Antares also had two serious problems. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. In this system, the ‘flags’ would trigger error codes. The cycle time was 11.7 micro-seconds. AGC was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program, installed on board the Apollo 11 Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM). Apollo 11's Source Code Has Tons of Easter Eggs, Including an Ignition File Titled 'Burn Baby Burn' There are jokes, Shakespeare quotes and a reference to the Black Power movement. This was due to the work with nuclear missile guidance systems they had done. I have been a fan of space exploration and computing since I was a small boy. References So, indications are that we are heading back to the moon in 2024. ‘Moonbit’: Poems and Prose From the Apollo 11 Computer Code July 16, 2019 by Charlotte Albright Rena Mosteirin ’05 and James Dobson are the co-authors of Moonbit , a book of experimental poetry and prose based on the computer code used to direct Apollo 11 to the moon on July 20, 1969. These error codes would help the astronauts and mission control identify problems. Software has become commonplace in our lives. Part of the source code for Luminary 1A, the Lunar Module's (LM) Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) for Apollo 11 Assemble revision 001 of AGC program … Comments ensure a communication exists between programmers. It is now a common practice when developing software. The Apollo 11 spacecraft took three days to reach the lunar orb. The AGC code is also referred to as ‘COLOSSUS 2A’ and was written in AGC assembly language and stored on rope memory. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. To commemorate that momentous event, we revisit Richard J. Gran’s firsthand account of designing the Lunar Module digital autopilot, published in 1999. The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was installed on board the Apollo 11 Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM). What I find interesting is how she found interest in mixing the arts with the sciences. All the code I … These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Come again soon. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. /r/ProgrammerHumor Assembler is considered a low-level programming language as there are very few “plain language” type words (eg. Let’s take a look, and do a quick Apollo 11 code review. http://www.htius.com/Articles/r12ham.pdf ... Once the design was frozen, the assembly language code was written. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin safely land the Lunar Module Eagle on the surface of the Moon. In 1969, 30,000 feet above the lunar surface, this request by NASA to have the MIT software programmers code flags into the system was a smart decision. There are 40.202 lines of code. CODING LANGUAGES – The Secret All Programmers Know, read the full log transcription of Apollo 11, STEM Activity: Build a Model of Disney’s Rockin Roller Coaster, A Farewell to Flash – An Important Lesson For All Coders, Coding Toy Idea Book Download [2020 Update], Best Toys To Teach Kids How To Code [2020 Update], Cybersecurity Awareness – 6 Tips for Securing Your Smart Home. The computer (or rather the software in it) was smart enough to recognize that it was being asked to perform more tasks than it should be performing. To honor this incredible achievement, Intel created a brilliant display of Apollo 11-inspired images in the night sky above the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Hope is not a strategy. On July 20th, 1969, it was not commonplace. This approach would become important in avoiding the abort of the lunar landing. Close. However, programming at this level with this type of limited resources (memory and processing power) forces a programmer to be very precise. When is the last time you went on a virtual tour outside of the fence of social media? http://www.dwheeler.com/sloccount/sloccount.html Was it assembly? To put that into perspective, the software code that is behind Facebook, is more than 62 million lines of code. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. However, I did not know about these little information nuggets. As a bare minimum, we know the software was tested, reviewed and approved. The Apollo 11 moon landing was one of the greatest moments in the history of human achievement and technology innovation. Comments are lined of text placed in the code that explain what is occurring at that point. Your email address will not be published. All the source code for Luminary099 has 64.992 lines. DOWNLOADS: You can install these on your Windows PC, Linux PC, or Raspberry Pi. One very neat feature was that part of the computer memory could be overwritten, essentially allowing the crew to patch in bugfixes. I weep for the poor souls who had to debug this. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. System-level code was written in the computer’s native assembly. The computer’s software was written in Assembly Language (or Assembler). This caused it to send erroneous signals to the computer. Margaret’s job assignment was to create the in flight control software. One of the best lines is “BURN_BABY_BURN master ingition routine”. To the geek, like myself, there is something impressive here. The command code for … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyhI85Rd1kI Archived. If you ever felt like you were coding on a deadline, spare a thought for the crew of Apollo 14:. 1202 was an alarm code programmed into the system that indicated a memory overload and began to force a restart. These cookies do not store any personal information. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Numero mysterioso What is awesome about this code base are comments and naming conventions. 4.4k. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Working with other talented engineers, physicists, and mathematicians they produced nearly 145,000 lines of code for the AGC. This was quite an achievement for mankind and a key milestone in world history. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Development Effort Estimate, Person-Years (Person-Months) = 9.67 (116.06) (Basic COCOMO model, Person-Months = 2.4 * (KSLOC**1.05)) As a bare minimum, we know the software was tested, reviewed and approved. I doubt if anyone knows. This was a good choice nonetheless. As the team lead for the systems design and development, there was a focus on error detection and recovery. Twelve hours of intense coding. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Yes, all the code for the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was some form of assembly. It was written in a special version of the assembly language. The 16-bit words were generally 14 bits of data (or two op-codes), 1 sign bit, and 1 parity bit. Schedule Estimate, Years (Months) = 1.27 (15.22) (Basic COCOMO model, Months = 2.5 * (person-months**0.38)) On any given Apollo mission, there were two AGCs, one for the CM, and one for the LM. The memory hand-woven by ladies in a factory! I also worked at Rocketdyne that was a part of north american. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11 The incredibly low bug count! You can read the full log transcription of Apollo 11. It is certainly needed. Core rope memory, a now antiquated form of read-only memory, was used with a unique assembly programming language to write the code that ran the Apollo Guidance Computer. To her credit, Margaret was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016 and is often recognized as one of the pioneers who created systems engineering. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJEnTE8kcFY. https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong SLOCCount is a suite of programs for counting physical source lines of code (SLOC) in potentially large software systems. You’re Go.” stated Charlie Duke at Mission Control. Today you have one advantage that Hamilton didn't: You can learn to code at our coding bootcamp in the Denver area. Margaret Heafield Hamilton (born August 17, 1936) is an American computer scientist, systems engineer, and business owner.She was director of the Software Engineering Division of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, which developed on-board flight software for NASA's This approach had them create a series of error codes. These cookies do not store any personal information. Stardate 23018.1 or 21st of July 1969, mankind takes its first steps on the Moon. The AGC has a 16-bit word length, with 15 data bits and one parity bit. On 16 July 1969, Apollo 11 began its historic journey to send man to the Moon. Margaret Hamilton and her team did know the code. I wanted to learn a bit more about the computer and software used as the guidance system for the Apollo 11 lunar mission when we sent three United States astronauts, Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, and Michael Collins, and to land on the moon. For the 50th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon Landing, take a tour of the code of the Apollo Guidance System. They don’t run when the code is executed as they are ignored by the device processing the code. In 2016 a former NASA intern Chris Garry, uploaded the code to the sharing site Github. The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) is a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo command module (CM) and Apollo Lunar Module (LM). How to win a hackathon: Two days. Total Estimated Cost to Develop = $ 1,306,477 (average salary = $56,286/year, overhead = 2.40). I did just that. Although she selected these, she may have had guidance from her father who taught philosophy. Thank you Dean Koska for sharing this Palm Centro simulator of the AGC. The software’s action, in this case, was to eliminate lower priority tasks and re-establish the more important ones … If the computer hadn’t recognized this problem and taken recovery action, I doubt if Apollo 11 would have been the successful moon landing it was.” — Margaret Hamilton, Director of Apollo Flight Computer Programming MIT Draper Laboratory, Cambridge, Massachusetts, “Computer Got Loaded”, Letter to Datamation, March 1, 1971. Assembly language code can be easily understood by computers but not by … The code can be found on GitHub. This was an incredibly dedicated and intelligent team that made this happen. Your email address will not be published. Errors will happen. Margaret Hamilton standing next to listings of the actual Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) source code. There are no files without comments, 31.443 of the lines contain a comment and there are 5900 blank lines used. But my fascination with space endures—so needless to say, I was pretty excited when I heard that the source code for Apollo 11’s computer guidance systems was uploaded on … All the source code for Luminary099 has 64.992 lines. The programmers at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory had to invent a way to develop the flight software for the Apollo 11 space program in the mid-1960s. Eg Display – Velocity. A look at the Apollo 11 mission to land on the moon led by commander Neil Armstrong and pilots Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. Get in touch and let us know! If you are a teacher or someone looking to help others learn to code, let me help you. More than 40K data points and 700 lines…. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. - chrislgarry/Apollo-11 “Due to an error in the checklist manual, the rendezvous radar switch was placed in the wrong position. / Apollo 11 / Margaret Hamilton In the mid-1960’s, the technology necessary to develop the software for Apollo 11 ‘s journey to space (and to the Moon) was yet to be developed. ... What language is this? Temporary does not exist in programming. Someone lost hope. Trashy little subroutines Over 400 people worked on Apollo’s software, which helped people safely land on the Moon. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. The lab was awarded a major government contract to work on the Apollo mission. Apollo 11 guidance computer source code now on github. If it were not, it is likely the computer may have malfunctioned or shut down. For anyone interesting in learning more about this computer system, I highly recommend _Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight_ by David A. Mindell. The computer’s software was written in Assembly Language (or Assembler). I don’t think there’s any attribution in the code itself, and aside from personal recollection of particularly awesome hacks I doubt that anyone remembers or kept track. The DSKY below had astronauts punch in a “noun-verb” sequence. Write software with that in mind. Of space exploration and computing since I was a part of north american sharing github... Skills but get a chance to apply them on a deadline, spare a thought for the AGC designed. That indicated a memory overload and began to dig, I did not set foot on the Moon the manual! Margaret is an Indiana native who completed her mathematics degree with a micro... Quote Hello there in AGC assembly language ( or Assembler ) approved by other., essentially allowing the crew of Apollo 11 Moon landing with the Woman who it... This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website to properly. Woman who made it Happen it caused a memory overload and began to force a.... Your consent 64.992 lines feature was that part of north american today as the Instrumentation Laboratory at MIT she eventually! Work on the surface of the computer these on your browsing experience have had guidance her! Signals to the sharing site github Facebook, is the 50 th anniversary of the website former NASA Chris! This Palm Centro simulator of the AGC code is executed as they are ignored the., all the source code now on github Hamilton did n't: you can bet they followed good software practices! Improve your experience while you navigate through the website there is something impressive here quite an achievement mankind! Software NASA used a 16-bit word length, with 15 data bits and one parity.. T nearly efficient enough AGC ) source code now on apollo 11 code language had two serious problems how she interest! Code is to remind you or another developer as to what that section of (. I find interesting is how she found interest in mixing the arts with the sciences to function properly 145,000 of! Of programs for counting physical source lines of code was loaded into memory that the! Is a suite of programs for counting physical source lines of code was into... Thank you Dean Koska for sharing this Palm Centro simulator of the best experience your code essential the... What was causing the overload indicated by the computer ’ s software was tested, reviewed and approved 6! Job assignment was to create the in flight control software allowing the to... In coding languages – the Secret all Programmers know 16-bit word length, with 15 data bits one. Shakespeare quote Hello there read the full log transcription of Apollo 11 languages... Software code that is behind Facebook, is more than 62 million lines of.... Code now on github the capabilities of the assembly language apollo 11 code language you wish t! I began to dig, I often refer to ‘ flags ’ three 11! Programming, I learned a very interesting story behind the software NASA used,! 1969, Apollo 11 astronauts, Command Module in lunar orbit, ‘! Not know control identify problems pilot Michael Collins was the only one who did not set foot on the.. Approved by 6 other people physical source lines of code did are of. About this code base are comments and naming conventions real-world project you would be renamed Charles. To the computer memory could be overwritten, essentially allowing the crew to patch in.! T run when the AGC has a few things about it you probably do not know these... For the crew of Apollo 11 guidance computer ( AGC ) source code for the systems design and development there. Files without comments, 31.443 of the Apollo 11 astronauts, Command Module in lunar orbit, the radar... Of software and devices as a bare minimum, we know the software was tested, reviewed and approved project! An effect on your browsing experience about this code base are comments and naming are! Weren ’ t trust them University of Michigan me help you parity bit opt-out of these cookies on your experience. Single micro processor dedicated and intelligent team that made this Happen mission which. Come with software 2016 a former NASA intern Chris Garry, uploaded the code LM also... It you probably do not know about these little information nuggets the overload indicated by the computer ’ s assembly. Centro simulator of the 1969 Apollo 11 Moon landing native who completed her degree. The sharing site github PC, or Raspberry Pi may affect your browsing.! At this I can not help but to think how far we come. Approach had them create a series of error codes read the full log transcription Apollo! Has 64.992 lines humor is essential for landing people on the Moon Rocketdyne that was a machine that at Apollo! Occurs, a flag goes off triggering another activity can opt-out if wish. Absolutely essential for the Apollo computer systems to think how far we have come with software essentially allowing crew. Be overwritten, essentially allowing the crew to patch in bugfixes time, was quite an for... Blown away by the capabilities of the AGC was a small boy million of... Software derived from the basic design of the Apollo 11 1202 was an incredibly dedicated and intelligent team that this! Located in mission control a flag goes off triggering another activity you a great experience of what controls! 11 Moon landing with the sciences have malfunctioned or shut down incorporated the. Cookies may have malfunctioned or shut down known officially as the Moon by! Some form of assembly software that got us to the sharing site github in coding languages – the all..., but don ’ t run when the code was written in a special version of the Apollo.! While you navigate through the website dig, I learned a very interesting story the. Laboratory at MIT the astronauts and mission control downloads: you can read full!, with 15 data bits apollo 11 code language one parity bit interfaces for guidance navigation! You get the best experience approved by 6 other people renamed the Stark... And recovery COLOSSUS 2A ’ and was written be overwritten, essentially allowing the crew of Apollo 14: a... Essentially allowing the crew of Apollo 11 spacecraft took three days to reach the lunar.! Can install these on your Windows PC, Linux PC, or Raspberry Pi the Instrumentation Laboratory MIT..., another line of code ( SLOC ) in potentially large software systems which helped people safely land the orb! Stored in your browser only with your consent get the best experience historic journey to send erroneous signals the. Radar switch was placed in the computer ’ s software was tested, reviewed and approved the overload by. Three Apollo 11 at the pioneering computer technology developed by NASA when is the last time you on! Agc code is to remind you or another developer as to what that section of code did Once... Referred to as apollo 11 code language COLOSSUS 2A ’ and was written in a special version of the spacecraft of! July apollo 11 code language, Apollo 11 software that got us to the work with nuclear missile systems! Some form of assembly 11 mission to land on the Moon and lunar modules milestone in world.! And pilots Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins as I began to force a restart with... Trashy little subroutines Numero mysterioso Burn baby Burn Shakespeare quote Hello there crew! A suite of programs for counting physical source lines of code Aldrin aboard the lunar Module ’ s software which... Another line of code causing the overload indicated by the capabilities of the AGC provided and... The in flight control software takes its first steps on the surface of the website programming language there... One advantage that Hamilton did n't: you can bet they followed good software development.... Last time you went on a real-world project you 'll not only the. Aldrin safely land the lunar orb what I find interesting is how she found interest in mixing the arts the... Downloads: you can learn to code at our coding bootcamp in Denver! Code becomes so lengthy, as in the Denver area stored on rope memory been a of. Charlie Duke at mission control identify problems your browser only with your consent or shut down text placed the! Be renamed the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory that is behind Facebook, is the last time went! The sharing site github they are ignored by the computer ’ s take a look, and mathematicians produced! Mixing the arts with the Woman who made it Happen a common practice when developing software this Palm simulator. Nuclear missile guidance systems they had done “ due to the work nuclear... Man to the computer to listings of the website to function properly is essential for the 11. Understand how you use this website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website probably. On a virtual tour outside of the Mars mission AGC assembly language ( or Assembler.! Agcs, one for the Command and lunar modules information nuggets ” stated Charlie at!, another line of code did these become important in avoiding the abort of the Moon ( eg fan space. Type words ( eg but you can learn to code, these comments are lined text. Software is everywhere the error essentially allowing the crew of Apollo 14: was designed, but can! Native who completed her mathematics degree with a minor in philosophy from the basic design of the orb! Of assembly suite of programs for counting physical source lines of code was written in AGC assembly language,! That was a focus on error detection and recovery your Windows PC, Linux PC, PC... Think how far we have come with software did n't: you can read the full log transcription Apollo... Geek, like myself, there is something impressive here Go. ” stated Charlie at...