HHS Puech P.-F., Puech S., Cianfarani F., Albertini H. (1989).  Despite other experimenters finding that some contexts elicited more correct subject responses than others, no theoretical explanation for differentiating between them was identified until Tooby and Cosmides proposed that disparities in subjects performance on contextualized versus non-contextualized variations of the task was a by-product of a specialized cheater-detection module, and Tooby and Cosmides later noted that whether there are evolved cognitive mechanisms for the content-blind rules of logical inference is disputed. NIH  It seems as though the neoteny of domesticated animals significantly prolongs the immaturity of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system (which is otherwise only immature for a short period when they are pups/kittens) and this opens up a larger "socialization window" during which they can learn to interact with their caretakers in a more relaxed way. , In many species, only males have impressive secondary sexual characteristics such as ornaments and show-off behavior, but sexual selection is also thought to be able to act on females as well in at least partially monogamous species. One common characteristic that is present in species of "high degree intelligence" (i.e. The first 3 million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history of the genus Homo in the Paleolithic era. These regions that were most influenced by heredity—large swaths of the frontal and temporal cortex, which are important in language processing and intelligence—overlapped strongly with parts of the brain that expanded during human evolution.  On a genetic level, humans have a modified FOXP2 gene, which is associated with speech and language development. Humans have evolved an advanced cheater detection system, equipped with proprietary problem-solving strategies that evolved to match the recurrent features of their corresponding problem domains. The improvement of cognitive functions including language is driver by the need of more effective communication requiring less energy, the need of social dominance, the competitive advantages within smaller groups and species or against other species, which improves the opportunity for obtaining food. Intelligence predicts the number of arguments one can make when taking either side of a debate. EQ is the ratio of a species’ actual brain mass to its predicted brain mass.  Social insects are shaped by ecology, including their social environment. Although these are not as well specified various candidates for such "organs" have been proposed: the parasympathetic system as a whole, the septal area over the amygdala, the oxytocin system, the endogenous opioids and various forms of quiescent immobilization which antagonize the fight-or-flight reflex. Evolution of the Brain: Creation of the Self. This adaption will develop by natural selection when two parties can make themselves better off than they were before by exchanging things one party values less for things the other party values for more.  The human variant of the gene SRGAP2, SRGAP2C, enables greater dendritic spine density which fosters greater neural connections. Most of these mammals are, also, closely related to humans in evolution, … From 6–2 million years ago. In In L. N. Trut and L. V. Osadschuk eds., Friedrich Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future 1886. Theref… Group selection theory contends that organism characteristics that provide benefits to a group (clan, tribe, or larger population) can evolve despite individual disadvantages such as those cited above.  Even more people with moderate mental damages, such as inability to complete difficult tasks, that are not classified as 'diseases' by medical standards, may still be considered as inferior mates by potential sexual partners. , The solution to this was to give birth at an early stage of fetal development, before the skull grew too large to pass through the birth canal. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. London: Routledge. Page 51.  Additionally, the Wernicke's area is located in the TPJ. The reality of encephalization-- the relatively large human brain-- with its correspondingly high intelligence, is readily apparent. In 2010, Satoshi Kanazawa argued that g correlated only with performance on evolutionarily unfamiliar rather than evolutionarily familiar problems, proposing what he termed the "Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis". [letter] New York Review of Books 22 (Nov. 13). , Simian primate brain evolution studies show that specific cortical regions associated with high-level cognition have demonstrated the greatest expansion over primate brain evolution. Around 10 million years ago, the Earth's climate entered a cooler and drier phase, which led eventually to the Quaternary glaciation beginning some 2.6 million years ago. This is because it paid to be a highly variable male, as average males would have consistently low opportunity, but variable males had a chance of falling on the preferred side of the trait distribution. During this time period, early humans began to walk upright and make simple tools. A great reference tool for people who want the "proof" of leading theories on the evolution of the human brain. , This model, which invokes sexual selection, is proposed by Geoffrey Miller who argues that human intelligence is unnecessarily sophisticated for the needs of hunter-gatherers to survive. The evolution of human intelligence is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language. Hence, tamed foxes show a reduced adrenal gland size and have an up to fivefold reduction in both basal and stress-induced blood cortisol levels. , Studies on cortical expansions in the brain have been used to examine the evolutionary basis of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Bigger Brains Are Better—Up to a Point For some 2 million years, our minds continued to expand. Which card or cards must be turned over to test the idea that if a card shows an even number on one face, then its opposite face is red? This hypothesis posits that human cognitive complexity arose as a result of the higher level of social complexity required from living in enlarged groups. The social brain hypothesis was proposed by British anthropologist Robin Dunbar, who argues that human intelligence did not evolve primarily as a means to solve ecological problems, but rather as a means of surviving and reproducing in large and complex social groups. Without sexual selection, an unattractive individual might find a superior mate with few deleterious mutations, and have healthy children that are likely to survive. Which card or cards must be turned over to test the idea that if someone is drinking alcohol then they must be over 18? Thus, in general there's a correlation between brain volume and intelligence. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that the success of groups is dependent on their size at foundation, with groupings of around 150 being particularly successful, potentially reflecting the fact that communities of this size strike a balance between the minimum size of effective functionality and the maximum size for creating a sense of commitment to the community. 2007 Oct;9(3):151-66. But it turns out that cultural changes may be able to foster genetic changes that affect intelligence, while technological advances are ushering in a new era of brain evolution. One consequence of this was that the north African tropical forest began to retreat, being replaced first by open grasslands and eventually by desert (the modern Sahara). The evolution of hominid intelligence can be traced over its course for the past 10 million years, and attributed to specific environmental challenges. Dawkins, Richard (1979). CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, How the body shapes the way we think: A new view of intelligence, Rolf Pfeifer, Josh Bongard, Eccles, John C. (1989). Some of the behaviors associated with living in large gr… ", "Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model", "Theory of Mind: Towards an Evolutionary Theory", "Colloquium paper: adaptive specializations, social exchange, and the evolution of human intelligence", "Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research", "General intelligence predicts reasoning ability even for evolutionarily familiar content", "Is General Intelligence Compatible with Evolutionary Psychology? Each card has a number on one side, and a patch of color on the other. Over the course of human evolution, brain size tripled.  Studies have demonstrated the presence of the mirror neuron system in both macaques in humans; However, the mirror neuron system is only activated in macaques when observing transitive movements..  It is hypothesized that these abilities derive from a selection against aggression.. ", "Origins of human intelligence: The chain of tool-making and brain evolution", "Tooth wear and dexterity in Homo erectus", "Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens", "Musical behaviours and the archaeological record: a preliminary study", "The neuroscience of primate intellectual evolution: natural selection and passive and intentional niche construction", "Dolphins and African apes: comparisons of sympatric socio-ecology", "Broca's area homologue in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): probabilistic mapping, asymmetry, and comparison to humans", 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6505(1998)6:5<178::AID-EVAN5>3.0.CO;2-8, "Processing power limits social group size: computational evidence for the cognitive costs of sociality", "Comparing Two Methods for Estimating Network Size", "How Much of a Network does the GSS and RSW Dredge Up? Anthropologists have been debating the origins of human intelligence and evolution of the brain for a long time – and now there’s a new theory in town. The former is responsible for the understanding of speech and the latter for the production of speech. The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Foreword by Carl Popper. In other words, the adaptations that a species can develop are not infinite and are defined by what has already taken place in the evolutionary timeline of a species.  In honeybees, their symbolic ‘dance’ is a form of communication that they use to convey information with the rest of their colony. 200,000 year old fossils of Homo sapiens were found in East Africa. is evident by 30,000 years ago.  This theory has received strong support from studies of animal domestication where selective breeding for tameness has, in only a few generations, led to the emergence of impressive "humanlike" abilities. The need to care for helpless infants for long periods of time forced humans to become less mobile. , Other studies suggest that social exchange between individuals is a vital adaptation to the human brain, going as far to say that the human mind could be equipped with a neurocognitive system specialized for reasoning about social change. According to proponents of the Toba catastrophe theory, the climate in non-tropical regions of the earth experienced a sudden freezing about 70,000 years ago, because of a huge explosion of the Toba volcano that filled the atmosphere with volcanic ash for several years. This gave the Homininae's eyes greater elevation, the ability to see approaching danger further off, and a more efficient means of locomotion. Intelligence as a disease-resistance sign, Ecological dominance-social competition model. They found that ecological factors (such as: folivory/frugivory, environment) explain a primate brain size much better than social factors (such as: group size, mating system). An intelligence that, today, is highly variant from individual to individual. Homologous regions have been found in other species (i.e.  Other explanations for the positive correlation between brain size and frugivory highlight how the high-energy, frugivore diet facilitates fetal brain growth and requires spatial mapping to locate the embedded foods. However, factors that correlate better with intelligence are the number of cortical neurons and conduction velocity, as the basis for information-processing capacity. On average, a human brain weighs around 1.5 kilograms and has a volume of 1,274 cubic centimeters in an adult male while in an adult female the volume of the brain is 1,131 cubic centimeters. The oldest unequivocal examples of prehistoric art date to this period, the Aurignacian and the Gravettian periods of prehistoric Europe, such as the Venus figurines and cave painting (Chauvet Cave) and the earliest musical instruments (the bone pipe of Geissenklösterle, Germany, dated to about 36,000 years ago). Fully modern behaviour, including figurative art, music, self-ornamentation, trade, burial rites etc. de Waal, Frans B. M. (1989). Introduction: claims of the comparative "proofs" Human intelligence ignored or rationalized; Brain size discounted; Hidden, contradictory views on the value of intelligence; Recent evolutionary research now emphasizes the interaction of diet and brain development. The evolution of human intelligence is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language. Trends Cogn Sci. Roughly 2.4 million years ago Homo habilis had appeared in East Africa: the first known human species, and the first known to make stone tools, yet the disputed findings of signs of tool use from even earlier ages and from the same vicinity as multiple Australopithecus fossils may put to question how much more intelligent than its predecessors H. habilis was. These group dynamics relate to Theory of Mind or the ability to understand the thoughts and emotions of others, though Dunbar himself admits in the same book that it is not the flocking itself that causes intelligence to evolve (as shown by ruminants). The continuous process of creating, interacting, and adjusting to other individuals is a key component of many species' ecology. 2 million to 800,000 Years Ago . Brain and body size increase.  On a cellular level, studies demonstrate von Economo neurons (VENs) are more prevalent in humans than other primates. Growing human brains require more nutrition than brains of related species of ape. "Against 'Sociobiology'". There are two main areas of the brain commonly associated with language, namely: Wernicke's area and Broca's area. Rapidly increasing sophistication in tool-making and behaviour is apparent from about 80,000 years ago, and the migration out of Africa follows towards the very end of the Middle Paleolithic, some 60,000 years ago.  As a result, humans became even more dependent on tool-making to compete with other animals and other humans, and relied less on body size and strength. At some point the bipedal primates developed handedness, giving them the ability to pick up sticks, bones and stones and use them as weapons, or as tools for tasks such as killing smaller animals, cracking nuts, or cutting up carcasses. Brain properties assumed to be relevant for intelligence are the (absolute or relative) size of the brain, cortex, prefrontal cortex and degree of encephalization. Ants do this by comparing odors which require fine discrimination of multicomponent variable cues. This is in part because the leaps human intelligence has taken are far greater than those that would have resulted if our ancestors had simply responded to their environments, inhabiting them as hunter-gatherers.  Researchers have attributed hominin evolution to mosaic evolution.  However, other researchers argue that extractive foraging was not a catalyst in the evolution of primate brain size, demonstrating that some non primates exhibit advanced foraging techniques. People infected with parasites may have brain damage and obvious maladaptive behavior in addition to visible signs of disease. Would you like email updates of new search results? The majority of said changes occur either in terms of size or in terms of developmental timeframes. 2005;64(2):417-27. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2004.09.002. This evolution gave humans a leg-up in the animal world. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical and energy constraints that have governed the evolution and functional organization of the brain and its underlying neuronal network. Humans, while they are not the only ones, possess the cognitive and mental capacity to form systems of personal relationships and ties that extend well beyond those of the nucleus of family. Along with this, there is a more developed neocortex, a folding of the cerebral cortex, and von Economo neurons. In the end, increasing its overall chance of surviving a competing group. , Around 80,000–100,000 years ago, three main lines of Homo sapiens diverged, bearers of mitochondrial haplogroup L1 (mtDNA) / A (Y-DNA) colonizing Southern Africa (the ancestors of the Khoisan/Capoid peoples), bearers of haplogroup L2 (mtDNA) / B (Y-DNA) settling Central and West Africa (the ancestors of Niger–Congo and Nilo-Saharan speaking peoples), while the bearers of haplogroup L3 remained in East Africa.  The trait of head size has become generally fixed in modern human beings. The use of tools conferred a crucial evolutionary advantage, and required a larger and more sophisticated brain to co-ordinate the fine hand movements required for this task. It is possible that for females to successfully judge male intelligence, they must be intelligent themselves. Here they were exposed to predators, such as the big cats, from whom they had previously been safe. Smarter people can more skillfully find and develop safe food sources and living environments. This adaptation enabled the human brain to continue to grow, but it imposed a new discipline. There has been a gradual increase in brain volume as humans progressed along the timeline of evolution (see Homininae), starting from about 600 cm3 in Homo habilis up to 1500 cm3 in Homo neanderthalensis. It is unclear to what extent these early modern humans had developed language, music, religion, etc. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. In fact, the size of a species' brain can be much better predicted by diet instead of measures of sociality as noted by the study conducted by DeCasien et al. . dolphins, great apes, and humans - Homo sapiens) is a brain of enlarged size.  Though this becomes a superficial argument after considering the balancing positive selection for the ability to successfully 'make ones case'. bunched together at the front of an organism. Despite considerable current interest in the evolution of intelligence, the intuitively appealing notion that brain volume and “intelligence” are linked remains untested.  Studies have supported the concerted evolution model by finding cortical expansions between macaques and marmosets are comparable to that of humans and macaques. The model was proposed by Robin Dunbar, who argues that human intelligence did not evolve primarily as a means to solve ecological problems, but rather intelligence evolved as a means of surviving and reproducing in large and complex social groups. Human intelligence is developed to an extreme level that is not necessarily adaptive in an evolutionary sense. As advancement, survival and reproduction within an increasing complex social structure favored ever more advanced social skills, communication of concepts through increasingly complex language patterns ensued.  One potential explanation for this finding is that frugivory requires 'extractive foraging,' or the process of locating and preparing hard-shelled foods, such as nuts, insects, and fruit. In short, the immense complexity and marvel of superior human intelligence only emerge inside of a specific culture and history.  In the mosaic approach, cortical expansions are attributed to their adaptive advantage for the species. "Heredity and Society". Nevertheless, the human intelligence is extremely flexible and different, while the animal intelligence is specialised, producing one thing at high level. Social Exchange is a vital adaptation that evolved in social species and has become exceptionally specialized in humans. The cortical mechanism responsible to the emergence and development of social existence]. Med Hypotheses.  Studies demonstrate that the enlargement in these regions is disproportionately centered in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). These environmental pressures caused selection to favor bipedalism: walking on hind legs. According to the model, human intelligence was able to evolve to significant levels because of the combination of increasing domination over habitat and increasing importance of social interactions. Smarter people can more skillfully learn to distinguish safe non-polluted water and food from unsafe kinds and learn to distinguish mosquito infested areas from safe areas. This reduced the human population to less than 10,000 breeding pairs in equatorial Africa, from which all modern humans are descended.  Studies have suggested that the region assists in language production, as well as language processing. A big portion of the scholarly literature focus on the evolution, and subsequent influence, of culture. , While decreased brain size has strong correlation with lower intelligence in humans, some modern humans have brain sizes as small as Homo Erectus but normal intelligence (based on IQ tests) for modern humans. Perhaps by looking at the selective pressures on our brain we can determine the purpose of the enhanced capacity we seem to possess. 1972. Average intelligence doesn't differ much between genders, but because female selection is restricted more towards males at the top end of male-male hierarchies or those increasingly above average in physical attractiveness, male trait distributions often have longer tails; that is to say the lowest and highest intelligences (and many more traits) in male populations extend further out into the lowest and highest values of the distribution than for female traits. In humans, societies are usually held together by the ability of individuals to recognize features indicating group membership. The object of current research and debate, however, is the examination of what evolutionary factors have driven the development of increased human encephalization.  With complete monogamy, there is assortative mating for sexually selected traits. As evidence, Dunbar cites a relationship between neocortex size and group size of various mammals. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. Given the immense anatomical and structural complexity of the brain, its evolution (and the congruent evolution of human intelligence), can only be reorganized in a finite number of ways.  The TPJ is located in the parietal lobe and is associated with morality, theory of mind, and spatial awareness.  It is often assumed that if breasts and buttocks of such large size were necessary for functions such as suckling infants, they would be found in other species. The outstanding intelligence of humans appears to result from a combination and enhancement of properties found in non-human primates, such as theoryofmind,imitationandlanguage,ratherthanfrom ‘unique’ properties. Evolution are the concerted and mosaic approaches of leading theories on the other closely tied to the ACC in than... 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Of disease greater amount of social relations and interactions thus leading to behavioral! 'S area is located in the TPJ babies are more difficult to birth! To function as it does, this means that sexual selection for intelligence and judging ability can act on of..., is highly variant from individual to individual intelligence predicts the number cortical!