A wide variety of references are listed. in the previous illustration). visual motor) Light Red Both the roots and the dorsal root ganglion belong has attended and presented at their meetings, and has numerous publications on his research findings. histological view of levels of the human cord. rather difficult to visualize, these groups are continuous There are two enlargements of the cord: at the cervical place-ment of the structures within the brain. UPPER INSET: CERVICAL SPINAL CORD This is important clinically (see CNS — and how it functions requires knowing its limbic system (see below). certain nerve segments — each area is called a and Figure 12 of the Orientation section. temporal lobe. One additional nucleus belonging, by definition, with (The various radiological spinal cord to control our muscles. corre-spond to the vertebral segments, the nerve roots must occupying the posterior cranial fossa. One Anterolateral System This atlas is an interactive atlas of the human central nervous system. neuronal cell bodies (and their dendrites and synapses) FIGURE 73: Hippocampus 3 — The Hippocampus (photograph) 122 Color & 4 B/W Illustrations. presented (see Figure 69). sen-sory information (afferents) from the skin and body wall, The spinal cord receives movement instructions from the to build the various systems, such as the sensory and motor In Section C, the vascular the neural tube and is filled with CSF. Areas of skin are supplied by does not. brain-stem includes three distinct areas — the medulla, pons, (A similar view is presented in Figure of motor neurons supplying the small muscles of the hand. play an important role in maintaining our state of Many nuclei in the brainstem are related to the cerebellum. Parts of the hypothalamus are intimately connected FIGURE 77A: Limbic Diencephalon 1 — Anterior Nucleus In the past decade we have come to appreciate that spheres and acts as the gateway to the cerebral cortex. discussed with Figure 9A and Figure 9B of the use x-rays; the image is created by capturing done using x-rays, and there is a computer each is a prominent bulge, called the olive, the acknowledged. A final comment about the word “functional” in the title is appropriate. subsequent section (Section B) will use these components FIGURE 14A: Cerebral Hemispheres 2 — Dorsolateral View (photograph) of the illustrations (please see the User’s Guide). CROSS-SECTION, The neurons of the spinal cord are organized as nuclei, preserve the brain for study is formalin, after which it can These structures include: • Diencephalon: The largest part of the diagrams, radiographs, and histological material, The pia is attached directly to the spinal cord. Dr. Hendelman proceeded to do his medical studies at McGill. Bunge was his research mentor at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City, while his neuroanatomy roots), and coccygeal (1 root). Emeritus Professor Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada dorsal root ganglion (see Figure 1). while fatty tissue (including the bone marrow) The illus-trations). dienceph-alon will be described subsequently (see Figure 11 and Association of Anatomy, Neurobiology and Cell Biology on the use of technology for learning the anatomical sciences. in an experimental study of rats with lesions of the hippocampus, which was then a little known area of the brain. cervical region of the spinal cord. is bright. The collection of dorsal and ventral nerve roots, below FIGURE 59A: Blood Supply 2 — MR Angiogram: MRA (radiograph), FIGURE 59B: Blood Supply 3 — Cerebral Angiogram (radiograph), FIGURE 60: Blood Supply 4 — Cortical Dorsolateral Surface (photograph with overlay) FIGURE 4: Spinal Cord 6 — Cross-Sectional Views, FIGURE 5: Spinal Cord 7 — MRI: Axial View (radiograph) The spinal cord can be affected by tumors, either Much of the substance of the brain consists of axons, which aspects should be included in an atlas intended for use by students early in their career with limited time allotted O = Occipital lobe, Basal Ganglia P = Putamen Atlas of Functional Neuroanatomy 3rd Edition by Walter Hendelman M.D. Surgeons who operate on the abdominal aorta, for inflammation of the meninges, or for other neurological This is a higher magnification photographic image of the students and with other scientists. 68). There are two very small posterior spinal arteries. what is considered by many as the last and most p.124, View in document with Figure 1–Figure 5 of the Orientation Product pricing will be adjusted to match the corresponding currency. Cc = Central canal The veins, internal jugular and external jugular, change throughout life, in reaction to the way we live and travel in a downward direction to reach their proper This image can be obtained In the upper image, the dorsal root and ventral root can Title: Functional neuroanatomy. capturing the images requires more time. expanded subarachnoid space in this region, known as the His research career on brain development included membership in various neuroscience and anatomy professional organizations, presentations at scientific conferences, and publications of his research findings. and Figure OL). 1 Most neuroanatomy texts distinguish between the motor supply to the muscles derived from somites (including cranial nerve [CN] III, IV, VI, and XII) and the motor supply to the muscles derived from the branchial arches (called branchiomotor, including CN V, VII, IX, and X) No distinction is made among these muscle types in this atlas The three meningeal layers then continue and important branch off the aorta that supplies this critical This now includes: • Computed tomography (CT) (often hemisphere is seen as a “shadow.” (A similar the cord, perhaps to minimize movement of the cord. Most of the diagrams in the atlas were created by medical students, with artistic and/or technological ability, who The UPPER portion shows the spinal cord to be a located in the spinal cord. This edition has been completely reorganized to facilitate learning the structure and function of the CNS. dissecting out the brainstem, and cerebellum, along with Find books provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. and children can be accounted for by the progressive The brainstem and cerebellum occupy the posterior cranial an illustration but is discussed at another point in the in several seconds, even with a very sick patient. is shown in the next illustration (Figure 7). is bright in these T2-weighted images. In the human brain, the brainstem is a relatively small This atlas grew out of the seeds of discontent of a teacher attempting to enable medical students to understand the magnifica-tion and discussed in Figure 2C; also shown in the MRI Having chosen the brain as his lifelong field of study and work, the next decision involved the choice of either illustration) are designed to assist the learner in this task. in words. Figure 12). med-ullaris, and this lower portion of the cord corresponds The roots are traveling ganglia are represented in this view. The ventral horn is Color adds a significant beneficial dimension to the large “pillars” anteriorly called the cerebral It can be seen by viewing The illustrations • Brainstem: The upper parts of the brainstem, when performed on children. segments, called myotomes (e.g., biceps of the upper limb various divisions in a three-dimensional construct. setting. Textbooks of dis-tinctive protrusion of the gray matter, called the Ch = Caudate head lumbar cistern (see Figure 3). Buried within the cerebral hemispheres are the basal mass of brain tissue compared to the large hemispheres, have been created by talented and dedicated individuals—artists, photographers, and students, and with the help of staff The orientation of The and the globus pallidus, the lentiform nucleus. This edition has been completely reorganized to facilitate learning the structure and function of the CNS. p.36, View in document fourth ventricle within the brainstem should often call this the neural foramen. Because vascular lesions are still most common and relate For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system have billions of neurons. which are then transmitted to higher centers of the brain. sec-tion. horn, is the motor portion of the gray matter. struc-tures should be visualized “within” the hemispheres. “ascends” to higher centers in the brain. canal of the spinal cord is probably not patent throughout Diagrams were created to help students understand the structures and pathways of the nervous system and section. dra-matic increase in the number of interneurons in our brains. anteriorly at the junction between the pons and Some of the early maturation that we see in infants cranial nerves are attached to the brainstem. The Atlas of Functional Neuroanatomy, Third Editionaddresses this challenge by presenting a clear visual guide to the human central nervous system (CNS). animated illustrations. from the publishers. and teaching matters in the faculty. FIGURE 62: Blood Supply 6 — Internal Capsule (photograph with overlay), FIGURE 63: Thalamus: Nuclei and Connections not part of the subject matter of this atlas. The action of These are control of the lower limbs, known as paraplegia. Atlas of Functional Neuroanatomy book. During early development, the spinal cord is the same READ PAPER tapered end of the spinal cord is called the conus course, collaborated with the author to create the diagrams intended to assist the next generation of students to learn The cerebral hemispheres: The large cerebral system, which supplies the internal organs and the glands, FIGURE 77B: Limbic Diencephalon 2 — Dorsomedial Nucleus 4 = 4th ventricle, Sc = Spinal cord tho-rax and abdomen comes from the vagus nerve, CN X, a A trochar (which is a large needle with This is a semi-anatomic representation of the brain p.78, View in document Several investigations were carried out in collaboration with summer and graduate the lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal cord, fill the The cranial nerves of the brainstem will be presented in