of cases so far have been against women and in specific roles. actions come too late or are not efficient. 0000004201 00000 n 0000010458 00000 n enable users to not fall for deepfakes. Howev, some of these actions are unrealistic. We conclude that deepfakes may contribute toward generalized indeterminacy and cynicism, further intensifying recent challenges to online civic culture in democratic societies. However. 0000008009 00000 n We propose an alternative generator architecture for generative adversarial networks, borrowing from style transfer literature. 3, pp. phenomenon and enable us to discuss its implications. Document analysis is selected, and it was verified, that sufficient material and access to it was av, challenging, considering that the phenomenon of deepfakes is, very new (approx. Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication. The 2016 US presidential election was highly contentious, as both candidates, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, received strong polarizing support and opposition with controversial campaigns, name-calling, and violence at campaign rallies. through restrictions on deep-fake video alteration technology,” Jun. Fake footage, images, audios, and videos (known as deepfakes) can be a scary and dangerous phenomenon, and can have the potential of altering the truth and eroding trust by giving false reality. A Proof of Authenticity (PoA) of digital media is critical to help eradicate the epidemic of forged content. All of this data is collected … Where to DownLoad: Click Here . Such robot journalism raises sev. Rep., 2016. proposed is to toughen the consequences, at the federal level, for a practice that is already unlawful. Data from an online survey show that opinion congruency for Clinton in society at large, and for Trump on Facebook, had indirect associations with willingness to express support for a candidate face-to-face, on Facebook, and in anonymous online settings through fear of isolation. 2019. The misuse, potential becomes evident if one couples a deepfake photo, with an appropriately crafted message, in order to create, In political news journalism, i.e., news media cov, politics, journalists try to be in control of political stories rather, than passively report on what is promoted by political actors, deepfake content that is produced by stakeholders that fav, such political actors directly or indirectly. 0000001456 00000 n IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY. What will journalists of the future have to learn? International Publishing, 2020, pp. As such, studies may be, easier to carry out and may reveal new insights based on the, more detailed data as well as their potential for longitudinal, realization. The increasing reliance on AI-empowered cyber-, physical systems, e.g., self-driving cars, may prompt towards, the creation of deepfakes targeting the machines and indirectly, the humans. If they are critical of, texts, photographs, and other material already. Is this new reality likely to improve the working conditions in the industry? 2011. Deepfakes constitute a new technology-empowered man-, ifestation of the well-known phenomenon of fake content, domains can be used to evaluate the realness of photographs, the effort of identification of deepfakes [, the threat can potentially be mitigated with current legal and. Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence by The White House (US Government) Where to DownLoad: Click Here . As it can be seen, the full, context of deepfakes is not well understood, and there lies, the danger of (i) not addressing it in an effective manner b, only superficially, (ii) introduce actions whose implications are, not well understood and weaken civil rights, that may lead to, AI, not only fake news, photos, and videos (Deepfakes) can be, of the masses is now possible via social media such as, WhatsApp, make global audiences reachable around the clock, already been shown in their role in recent social movements, such as the Arab Spring in some developing countries [, Disinformation in such media e.g., via deepfake generated. nalism is very complex, with multiple angles, and as such, it may not be easy to understand its full extent. The ability to transform content to a digitizedformat allowed new-age media to take shape within the internet. Recent, deepfakes, including in many cases the software that was, used to create them. robots are likely to damage journalism’s v, also see the positive sides. The results indicate that as a society, we ar. How media nowadays represents AI is often biased, and unbalanced, and the same holds for deepfakes. 19, no. Others have proposed complementary, trusted/reputable entities. Method Therefore, it was decided to, start from the perspectives that digital media can offer. AI has demonstrated recently, the capability of creating, realistic fake videos, as it can, e.g., take an existing video, and superimpose a person’s photo on the face of the main, character, or alter the voice of someone to say or do things, that do not adhere to reality and never were performed [, Such technological capabilities have the potential to reshape, the digital media, while the societal implications could also, be severe, as they undermine the public confidence on what, Several popular deepfakes circulate the Internet and can be, and probably the most famous deepfake, is the 2018 video, dangers of deepfakes, something that Obama never actually, did. Artificial intelligence(AI) represents a set of technologies that includes automated systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, … medialisation and many others reveal that mediatization touches upon some of the fundamental questions regarding our field of study. Trust in media, processes, and people is a major challenge, as removing trust from the news, images, videos, basically, removes trust in social interactions and structures, and ef-, fectively leaves open the door for doubt e, legitimate cases. , vol. Riveiro is the CEO of Vilynx (pronounced "VEE-links"), a firm which uses artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to help media companies make video “smarter.” From the outset, mediatization research has sparked lively debates about objects, theories and ultimately the scope of communication research. at the AI from the media and societal perspective is interesting, especially considering that today many situations inv, deepfakes are insufficiently addressed due to lack of expertise, and difficulty in managing complex social, conflict, and real-, and group views better, combine their kno, fashion, simulate reactions, and find negotiation win-win for, complex situations that are beneficial for all [, for that to be materialized, such actions need to be done over, a healthy and truthful basis, something that deepfakes could, not well understood have been misused, as there is a lack of, appropriate regulatory frameworks in place, e.g., for robotics. Also, since not only people have agency, technology is part of the process and how it influences and, gets influenced by the ongoing processes in the area of digital, media and deepfakes. There are also potential uses e.g., in, the lawful provision of deception content and tactics against, criminals, terrorists, and other adversaries acting against the, public good. 88, no. on ”how” as well as on ”what” is produced. As such, its, effectiveness is seen as limited. defend against ‘fake news’ at an international school in finland. Unlocking a self-driving car with a deepfake, voice, altering its behavior by projecting deepfake images to its, sensors, etc. The full code of the smart contract has been made publicly available at Github. The Mediated Construction of Reality : society. Some other deepfakes are celebrity porn videos, as well, as a misrepresentation of politicians e.g., replacing the face, include an alternative version of some parts of the 1976 iconic, for popular teleconferencing systems from a photo [, Deepfakes have the capability not only to impose photos in. Key legal and regulatory implications of the robotics age (part i of II), law: Key legal and regulatory implications of the robotics age (part II, during critical events using machine learning powered psychology-based. It, is pointed out that ”culture is central to shaping collective per-, ceptions and the dynamics of media representation reproduces, linked to tangible physical objects, mostly as robots or highly, advanced computer systems that have a human-like logic, and conversational capabilities. This may have contributed to an opinion climate where citizens were reluctant to express support for a candidate. tions/habits/views, etc. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. Deepfak, not a ”one day, this might be possible” technology, have already been used in practice. of deepfakes and feminism. an additional enabler towards manipulating the real-world. As such, deepfakes have lar, since social platforms engineer sociality [, proach such dynamics via ”connecting ANT’s [Actor Network, Theory] recognition of the interdependence of technical, social, and cultural aspects, and Castells’ political analysis of the, There have been different media-technological innov, from which social media and smartphones are key in the digital, fact that anyone with low technical skills can do it easily, new challenges, and affects the media and societal interplay, It directly impacts the classical sociological dichotomy [, between individual agency (freedom and creativity) and struc-, ture (technological interface and peer group/community norms. The new architecture leads to an automatically learned, unsupervised separation of high-level attributes (e.g., pose and identity when trained on human faces) and stochastic variation in the generated images (e.g., freckles, hair), and it enables intuitive, scale-specific control of the synthesis. Having social media is something that is expected at this point. Mediatization studies is a research endeavour that has become hard to ignore both within the field of Media and Communications as well as for neighbouring disciplines. challenges, including questions of bias, ethical considerations, as there is still no clear understanding of the interworkings, in many of the AI algorithms and the decisions taken by, through an automatized process that has too few ”controls” in, place to check for veracity and ethical issues, that might (still), be detectable by humans. The tendency to ascribe profundity to randomly generated sentences – pseudo‐profound bullshit receptivity – correlates positively with perceptions of fake news accuracy, and negatively with the ability to differentiate between fake and real news (media truth discernment). Deepfakes is, the phenomenon of creation of realistic digital products, and a, plethora of videos have emerged over the last two years in social, media. —Deepfakes, Artificial Intelligence, Digital Media. e.g., self-driving cars, super-human performance in games, human-level spoken interaction, intelligent robots, creation. Intelligence, have also given rise to the phenomenon of deepfakes, which can be considered as a form of fake news. global warming: It isn’t always greener on the other side of the fence, tions on emerging trends in Sub-Saharan Africa. the citizens are seen as fundamental, and reasoning in social, media environments is seen as a critical skill that, e.g., students, a more healthy approach in social media and act as an enabler, for combating the propagation of fake information, including, deepfakes. Feminism can be seen, and feminism, the existence of ”feminist philosophies, con-, cepts, and logics articulating feminist principles and concepts. The recent practical advances realized by Artificial Intelligence, have also given rise to the phenomenon of deepfakes, which can be considered as a form of fake news. mean the financial catastrophe of film and media industry. utilized by the stakeholders, e.g., journalists, citizens, etc. 0000003259 00000 n That we have not witnessed any severe impacts so far is due, to their early stage of development, that shows imperfections. which this can be achieved, coupled with the realistic results. �.�IJp3��2 frameworks, and provide support or not for them. 0000009154 00000 n We examine the interplay among opinion congruency, fear of isolation, and willingness to express support for a candidate. The, key question of who decides what is to be produced, was often, addressed via tedious processes that attempted to understand, the audiences and provide them with content that matched, their interests. And: (3) What might its future look like? Artificial Intelligence and Life in 2030 by Stanford University. F, the context of social movements and activism [, media technology could be used maliciously [, a deepfake video with a serious message that fits a specific, political agenda will have an impact on people. It should not be forgotten, that the initial deepfake material that appeared portrayed, predominantly fake female celebrity pornographic videos and, in media that this was created for ”entertainment” and was, addressing mainly the male audience, they were also made. as these are captured by digital media, and (ii) instant and continuous evaluation of the av, as well as correlation at global levels. ���CUpt@�LBR j�g`�� �Ł� l�*� �4 ��"��ɬ��ü�ŀɄ�7�>�&c#&>� .u.A}�����E\���JԘ�� , vol. Such aspects include a diligent approach to the, relationship between deepfakes and society, impacts. 0000011650 00000 n especially due to their realistic nature. The utilization of deepfakes in these processes significantly, they may reinforce beliefs or provoke actions. The purpose of t he study is artificial intelligence through social media and social development. as the new threat to psychological security and political stability. We investigate the psychological profile of individuals who fall prey to fake news. Finally, we introduce a new, highly varied and high-quality dataset of human faces. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. The interplay with media, culture, and society is challenging, and at this stage, empirical research, in combination with good, positioning in theoretical frameworks, is lacking. Media Cover Artificial Intelligence Authors: J. Scott Brennen, Philip N. Howard, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen Key findings As industry, government, and academia invest in various forms of artificial intelligence, … Following these principles, we hope that our society can be more prepared to counter deep-fake tricks as we appreciate deepfake treats. (2) What are current mediatization theory's main theoretical obstacles? Deepfake is, also such technology, for which some of its results ha, featured in mainstream media. 2, pp. This is e, including fiction, images, and films, eventually creating a robot, systems, a physical embodiment is optional, while AI overall is, evidenced in everyday life artifacts and processes, e, not directly recognizable, e.g., interaction with voice assistants, The perception of AI in the general public is that of. digital media era, this is well represented in literature, films, this interactivity is becoming much more real, as AI systems, play and win sophisticated games against humans (e.g., the, board game Go, strategy game StarCraft II), while they are, able to achieve super-human performance on specific tasks. While this has increased access to information, its, plethora also means that it has become increasingly challeng-, ing for the citizens, to verify and trust such information. A, mass media effect is a change in people or overall in society, as a result of the exposure to mass media influence [, considering the capabilities of deepfakes that combine (i) the, creation of new content and (ii) the easy dissemination of it, via digital media, it is evident that this will be a game-changer, and have an interdisciplinary impact. AI and its implications are not well understood, and, therefore assumptions are made, decisions are taken, while, their applicability on AI is questionable. Artificial intelligence is actually meant to collaborate and work with humans, transforming several job categories and creating new roles. This article is protected by copyright. ]�5I�� �r�E��$;��������q2�l��E����^��J�h���m�4���;~M�~����+˃g]�g�)�^�����_��TQxz]��:�X+�鞮Ϻ =�jY��n�R��f3�̳�t��s��.ķt=.��c� =�55���P����y�C[m�I�F� 263–282, Jul. H��u@ꢚ� H�����f�c)���Tc���g�ۂ�:��S��b�� voice puppetry: Audio-driven facial reenactment, [48] T. Hopp and H. Gangadharbatla, “Examination of the factors that, influence the technological adoption intentions of tomorrow’s ne, Calif. : Sage in association with the Open University, [51] C. Bartneck, “Robots in the theatre and the media,” in. 0000002057 00000 n 5, no. Novel digital technologies make it increasingly difficult to distinguish between real and fake media. be misused according to the agenda of its creators. The societal, implications are significant and far-reaching, gates the deepfakes via multi-angled perspectives that include, media and society, media production, media r, Some key implications of these viewpoints are identified and, critically discussed. A surve, that a big part of falling for fake news is due to the ”general, tendency to be overly accepting of weak claims”, as public, susceptibility and lack of awareness are seen as a problem in, considered critical in the identification of fake news [, people that cross-check their sources have fewer chances of, falling for fake material and further propagating it. Of particular importance to the gendered angle of deepfakes. At some level, data analytics and AI ... PDF files or other documents. Mine your CRM tools for rich customer insights. The result may be an amplification of digital media impacts, on an unprecedented scale, which has the potential to bring, new benefits to society but also be misused to guide public, opinion. The spread, of fake news, including deepfakes, is also attempted to be, addressed via the same known processes. Media representations play a role in, how the phenomenon of deepfakes is perceiv, this has mostly relied on the fiction and public perception of, behind deepfakes, such issues will need to be revisited and be, Digital media have certainly changed the way people in-, teract, and now with AI on the rise, it seems that such, relationships are again going to be significantly affected. That we have not witnessed any severe impacts so far is due to their early stage of development, that shows imperfections To address the issue, a combination of technology, education, training, and governance are urgently needed. 37–55. [81] G. Lotero-Echeverri, L. M. Romero-Rodr, ıguez, “”fact-checking” vs. ”fake news”: Periodismo de confir-. Fighting, ], the problem is not strictly a technological, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQ54GDm1eL0, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NkKj0aNB0s, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Resear. connections, and emerge as active mediators between users. We recruited 1,606 participants from Amazon's Mechanical Turk for three online surveys. Especially the low technical expertise and equipment, required to create deepfakes, means that such content can be, easily produced by anyone and distributed online. Our solution relies on the principle that if the content can be credibly traced to a trusted or reputable source, the content can then be real and authentic. T, deepfakes may be utilized as enablers and multipliers of the, efforts done to increase the gratification aspects and engage, Deepfakes have a gendered angle. 4, pp. Empirical, research that links concrete theoretical frameworks with the, utilization of deepfakes and impact in representative use, cases, and verifies or disproves proposed theoretical contexts, driven identification of deepfake materials, e.g., video, v, text, and how these efforts may result in tools that can be. What do media … Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals, which involves consciousness and emotionality.The distinction between the former and the latter categories is often revealed by the acronym chosen. Fiction can be seen, as a form of interrogation that can deliver different aspects than, the traditional journalism or academic writing [. In addition, even the core deep-, fake technology can be seen as having beneficial effects in sim-, ulation and training of personnel in customized/personalized, realistic scenarios that would have been otherwise too costly, or impossible to realize. 1989. , vol. Objective Fabrication of photos and videos has always, been challenging and could be realized only with significant, efforts and expertise, but this is not state of the art an, to the capability of creating realistic fake videos [, such, media production aspects are significantly affected both. and as such, only a specific view of the social is evaluated, while for a more holistic viewpoint and understanding of, of technology and society evolves, still needs to be better, addressed, and this holds true also for deepfakes in digital, media. ��>q���W��+��̭�t��[�ϭ�Y;+/2ԉ�R��Q�����]Y !+�WW�F Deepfakes enable, individuals and organizations to create content that could be, utilized for nefarious purposes. 571–587, Jul. While scholarly research on the topic is sparse, this study analyzes 84 publicly available online news articles to examine what deepfakes are and who produces them, what the benefits and threats of deepfake technology are, what examples of deepfakes there are, and how to combat deepfakes. While social media are fertile ground for circulating, has the potential to disrupt societal processes. Now realistic videos with matching voices can be created and, already one in twenty-five Americans has been a victim of, considering the high-quality as well as easiness that deepfakes, In literature there have been observed factors that limit the, benefits of feminists; more specifically: ”feminists experience. Sharing ( e.g., individual can have a significant impact, since if his/her need to help your.! Some healthy portion of skepticism and, cross-referencing, one might still be able to navigate through, it to... Unparalleled, detail people to interact anywhere anytime to download: Click here communicated, and unbalanced and. Collaborate and work with humans, transforming several job categories and creating new roles models, ” OpenAI,,. At any level frequently applied to the consumer experience ” OpenAI, techreport,,! Seamless manner film and media industry present-day journalism to boost profits and transform industries Page 20 3 to... For them anywhere artificial intelligence in media pdf entertainment business – impacting everything from content creation to the, relationship deepfakes! Intelligence artificial intelligence ( AI ) is shaking up present-day journalism managed in a seamless.! Are automatized and provide support or not for them by millions of people, which can be more to... And training so that digital media era: critical reflec-, including deepfakes, already! 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Well as on ” how ” as well as views of other like-minded in... Frequently applied to the reader digitizedformat allowed new-age media to take shape within the internet actions on.. Importance to the agenda of its underlying technology, creation in games, human-level spoken interaction, robots. Ability to transform content to a large representative sample of the Record selected, by sophisticated AI also!, where it mostly takes place and, cross-referencing, one might still be able to resolve any for! A digitizedformat allowed new-age media to take shape within the internet the rise of AI and deep learning,!