Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic … In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte was confronted by Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès—one of five Directors constituting the executive branch of the French government—who sought his support for a coup d'état to overthrow the Constitution of the Year III. The Constitution established the House of Bonaparte as France’s imperial dynasty, making the throne hereditary in Napoleon’s family. Napoleon played a key role in the French Revolution (1789–99), served as first consul of France (1799–1804), and was the first emperor of France (1804–14/15). The Constitution of the Year XII was the national constitution of France, adopted in 1804. The constitution extended the president's term to 10 years, with no term limits. The First French Empire, officially the French Empire or the Napoleonic Empire (French: Empire Français; Latin: Imperium Francicum), Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. As enthusiastic contingents of volunteers left for the front, fear of counterrevolutionary plots gripped the capital. This vote was heavily rigged; 92 percent were announced as voting in favour. The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. The First French Empire stands distinct from its imitator and would-be successor the Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852-1870).Bonaparte’s march to empire began with the Constitution of the year X (August 1802). In 1804, the Constitution of the Year XII established the First French Empire with Napoleon Bonaparte — previously First Consul for Life, with wide-ranging powers — as Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. The First Consul, Tribunate, and Corps législatif each nominated one Senatorial candidate to the rest of the Senate, which chose one candidate from among the three. It was founded when General Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed himself Emperor of France with Pope Pius VII's blessing, and it fought a series of expansionist wars against the … His coup was ratified by plebiscite on 22 and 23 December 1851. The preamble of the constitution recalls the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 and establishes France as a secular and democratic country, deriving its sovereignty from the people.. Government institutions and practices. On 9 November 1799 (18 Brumaire VIII under the French Republican Calendar) and … The term notables, commonly used under the monarchy, referred to prominent and more affluent men — landholders, merchants, scholars, professionals, clergymen, and officials. The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1860, Napoleon III permitted the Senate and Legislative Body to once again have the right to air their opinions and grievances on the acts of the government. More than 99% of voters approved the motion according to the released results. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_Constitution_of_1852&oldid=1007115590, Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2017, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 February 2021, at 15:09. He was crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804. It vested all the real power in the hands of the First Consul, leaving only a nominal role for the other two consuls. The title Emperor of the French was established when Napoleon Bonaparte received the title of Emperor in 1804 from the French Senate and was crowned Emperor of the French at the cathedral of Notre Dame. The Constitution of the Year VIII, adopted December 24, 1799, established the Consulate. The constitution replaced the Constitution of the Year VIII and the Constitution of the Year X, establishing the First French Empire with Napoleon Bonaparte as its hereditary emperor. The Constitution established the House of Bonaparte as France’s imperial dynasty, making the throne hereditary in Napoleon’s family. As a result of the spike in public violence and the political instability of the constitutional... Directory. The constitution preserved the appearance of a republic but in reality established a dictatorship. His power was confirmed by the new Constitution of the Year VIII, originally devised by Sieyès to give Napoleon a minor role, but rewritten by Napoleon and accepted by direct popular vote. The Constitution of the Year X established a revised Consulate, with Napoleon as First Consul for Life. However, Napoleon never intended to be part of an equal triumvirate. First French Empire (1804−1815) — of Napoleon in France See also the preceding Category:French First Republic and the succeeding Category:Bourbon Restoration The main article for this category is First French Empire . In practice, so much power was concentrated in the president's hands that when the Second Empire was proclaimed, the only substantive changes were the replacement of the word "president" with the word "emperor," and the provision that the emperor's post was hereditary. It was the main power of most of continental Europe during the early 19th century. While this near-unanimity is certainly doubtful, Napoleon was genuinely popular among many voters. The Constitution of the Year XII was later extensively amended by the Additional Act (1815) after Napoleon returned from exile on Elba. Although the office of Holy Roman Emperor was elective, the House of Habsburghad held the title since 1440 (with one brief interruption) and Austria was the core of their territories. He was assisted by the Council of State (Conseil d'État) which he controlled and presided, and whose job it was to write and support legislation. The constitution rejected the Ancien Régime and the post-revolutionary restoration monarchies with census suffrage. France emerged from World War II to face a series of new problems. Sieyès had intended to reserve this important position for himself but by vetoing the proposal, Napoleon helped reinforce the authority of the consuls. The Constitution of the Year VIII, adopted in 1799 and accepted by the popular vote in 1800, established the form of government known as the Consulate that presumed virtually dictatorial powers of the First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte. The regime was characterized by a strong personal power backed by universal suffrage; the French people remained "sovereign", and in this way the Second Empire was different from the earlier constitutional monarchies. The president was vested with sweeping executive and legislative powers. The function of the Empire, as Emperor Napoleon III often repeated, was to guide the people internally towards justice and externally towards perpetual peace. In 1804, the Constitution of the Year XII established the First French Empire with Napoleon Bonaparte — previously First Consul for Life, with wide-ranging powers — as Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. Napoleon became Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804. The Constitution of the Year X (1802) made Napoleon First Consul for Life. Napoleon I, also called Napoléon Bonaparte, was a French military general and statesman. The executive power was vested in three Consuls, but all actual power was held by the First Consul, Bonaparte.Napoleon vetoed Sieyès’ original idea of having a single Grand Elector as supreme executive and Head of State. As the years progressed, he moved to consolidate his own power as First Consul and leave the two other consuls and the Assemblies weak and subservient. The Corps législatif, or Legislative Body (the same name had been used for the lower house of the French legislature during the French Consulate and First French Empire from 1799–1814), comprised 260 deputies (representatives) elected for 6 years by direct universal suffrage, but gerrymandering of the election districts ("circonscriptions") and the system of "official candidates" favored partisans of the president/emperor. The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien, then serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, and Talleyrand. The Second Empire was proclaimed on 2 December 1852 and the Imperial Constitution was enacted on 25 December 1852, without any significant change to the 14 January constitution. 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